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Penicillin Essay Examples

Magic Bullet: Antimicrobial Drugs
The drug that we know as antibiotic today, was initially called Pyocyanase, isolated from pseudomonas aeruginosa by Emmerich and Low in 1899 (Aminov 2010). They studied its antimicrobial effects, but since the results were not consistent and the drug toxicity was high, the whole idea...
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Industrial and biotechnology
According to Steve Burrill, President and CEO of Burrill & Co at BIO said with his trade mark optimism that “those in the industry were fortunate to be alive at this time, when all current world problems -- climate change, sustainability, energy security, food production...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Essay
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Advances in Industrial Biotechnology
Biotechnology is defined by the UN Convention on Biological Diversity to be “any technological application that uses biological systems, living organisms, or derivatives thereof, to make or modify products or processes for specific use”. This definition is by far the broadest given for biotechnology. Traditional...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Term Paper , Biology
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Syphilis Infection and Potential Progression
Normally there is no itching associated with the rashes that can be usually seen as rough, red, or reddish brown spots on the palms of the hands and bottom of the feet. These rashes may occur in other parts of the body. There is also...
Pages: 10 (2500 words) , Research Paper , Medical science
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Peculiarities of Pneumonia in Children
Sometimes pneumonia disease will lead to death in case the patient is constantly and terminally sick. In addition, pneumonia is the prime cause of raising the ratio of death in children less than five years. The symptoms of pneumonia mainly consist of chest pain, fever, cough...
Pages: 15 (3750 words) , Research Paper , Health Sciences & Medicine
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H2A and H2AX transcript level variation in human prostate cells
The difference in time, between the two cell lines indicates the difference in the growth phases. So the concentration of the RNA was one fold less in DU-145 cell line than PC-3. PWR-1E cell line took 10 days for growth. The variation in the growth...
Pages: 14 (3500 words) , Dissertation
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Microbial Growth on Differential and Selective Media
The growth of bacteria in a laboratory is dependent on the adequate supply of nutrients which are sufficient for the growth of micro-organisms. This is achieved by using selective and differential media which would encourage the growth of the required bacteria while suppressing the growth...
Pages: 18 (4500 words) , Term Paper , Biology
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Different Sexual Diseases
Administration of antibiotics is enough for the treatment of gonorrhea at the early stages. As with other sexually transmitted diseases, prevention of gonorrhea is through abstinence from sexual contact with infected individuals. Appropriate use of condoms may lower the risks of vaginal and rectal infections....
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Case Study , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Medical Microbiology
Mixtures of anaerobic Gram bacteria’s lead to female genital tract infections. The virulence factor of these microbes lies with the capsule. The most important STDs are gonorrhea, Chlamydia, and Syphilis. It is more common for male. The reports say that 95% of the men are...
Pages: 28 (7000 words) , Assignment , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Medicinal Purposes of Fungi
One of the most famous fungi is Phytophthora infestans which caused the great potato famine in Ireland during the mid 1800s and resulted in a million deaths (Encyclopedia Britannica). Fungi are also responsible for the destruction of about a quarter to half of harvested fruits...
Pages: 15 (3750 words) , Research Paper
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Antibiotics resistant superbugs
Once an antibiotic is induced in the system, it creates an environment that is not conducive for bacteria. However, the conditions created by induction of antibiotic does not inhibit existence of bacteria that are resistant. Once the resistant bacteria are left, there is likely to...
Pages: 4 (1000 words) , Research Paper , Education
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Ethics of Stem Cell Research and Human Cloning
Perhaps one of the most talked-about methods of medicinal intervention is therapeutic cloning. Stem cell research without the replication of DNA replicas in medicine is not as controversial as therapeutic cloning. However, owing to the reliance on human embryos in either method, it is necessary...
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Streptococcus Pneumoniae
However, the rate is very low in number; it is 1 in 105 micro-organisms. The transparent colony is best adapted for proliferation in the nasopharynx. The opaque colonies thrive very well in the host’s blood. The opaque colonies increase their virulence during systemic infections. These...
Pages: 5 (1250 words) , Research Paper , Biology
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Wastefulness in Animal Researches
Most of the testing conducted on animals is with the aim of finding a cure for human diseases like polio, Aids, cancer, and other deadly human diseases. Each period of the years, millions of fish, cats, monkeys, and other animals are subjected to these experiments....
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Term Paper , Social science
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Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Warfarin
Since warfarin is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P-450 (CYP) isoenzymes predominately to inactive hydroxylated metabolites (excreted in the bile), warfarin metabolism may be altered in the presence of hepatic dysfunction or advanced age. It also is metabolized by reductases to reduced metabolites (warfarin alcohols), which...
Pages: 4 (1000 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Protest Against the Use of Animals for Vivisection
There is severe stress as the animals spend their entire lives in barren cages with the inability to make their choices and express natural behavior, no fresh air and or exposure to sunshine too. Rotation facilities in these animal cages are commonly giving the animals...
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Term Paper , Medical science
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The disadvantages include interrupted periods and weight gains. They do not offer protection to pregnancy (NHS Choices 1). Question 4 Sexually transmitted diseases include HIV and Aids, Syphilis, Gonorrhea. The immediate Symptoms for HIV and Aids include flu like symptoms and swollen glands. However, serious symptoms may...
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Assignment , Biology
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The Medicinal Role of Different Foods in the Different Regions in the World
The number of people suffering from asthma in the community is high and it has been held that diet may be a modifiable factor that predisposes people to asthma. The intake of salt and a change in the fatty acids compound in the diet, as...
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Technology ended the physical and intellectual isolation of Americans
Though these services existed from the beginning of the century, they were mass produced and put into full use only after the invention of electricity and mobile motors. Electrical controlled street cars also started to appear very closely. The first cable car was invented in...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Essay , History
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Legalization of Marijuana in the United States
The man has for long cried on the view that he is not properly treated by the people who rule his life. This has been an on-going saga for ages now. To add some pointers on the discussion, we find that indeed this is something...
Pages: 10 (2500 words) , Essay , Social science
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Discuss the problems associated with antimicrobial resistance
The cause-effect is that the microbes that survive are not affected by the antimicrobials. The survivors then reproduce and produce a strong progeny that quickly displays dominance within the microbial population. The microbes with the dominant genotype, then transfer the drug resistant genes to the...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Essay , Medical science
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Clinical Understanding of Anaphylaxis in Child Patient
Latex is also a culprit for the development of the anaphylactic reaction. Initial allergic reactions to latex may manifest as dermatitis and then progress to more severe allergic conditions. Health care workers and patients are the most common victims of anaphylaxis reaction in this case...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Case Study , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Pharmaceutical Industry in the UK: GlaxoSmithKline
Generally, the pharmaceutical industry in the United Kingdom through its service of making pharmaceutical products available for use in the health sector of the United Kingdom, for the treatment of diseases and conditions, makes a large contribution to maintaining the health of the citizens of...
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Demonstrating Ethical Violations of Research Procedures
  The next part of the study, the Carbohydrate Study, was to examine how caries activity was influenced by the ingestion of carbohydrates under controlled conditions such as under extreme conditions with regard to carbohydrate consumption. In Carbohydrate Study I, sugar in solution or in...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Essay , Sociology
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Comparative Book Analysis
However, when people move from place to place, they tend to meet others who have not been previously exposed to the same strains of these organisms. This means that the hosts usually take a lot of time before they get used to the presence of...
Pages: 9 (2250 words) , Book Report/Review , History
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The British system of health care
One of the first major reforms saw general managers being appointed. This was one of the key proposals of Griffith’s report. She embarked on reforming it introducing the internal competition concept. By 1987 many problems had cropped up and they needed urgent attention. One of...
Pages: 9 (2250 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Business Strategy in Pharma Industry
This paper provides a strategic review and analysis of the pharmaceutical industry; its origins, evolution, development and competitive environment within which it operates and the strategic issues facing the industry. The paper also provides an overview of the industry, its key players, and its strategic...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Research Paper , Business
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The Pathophysiological Changes that occur in Waterhouse Friderichsen
Waterhouse Friderichsen syndrome was reported first in 1911 by Rubert Waterhouse. This syndrome is caused by the failure of the adrenal gland due to massive bleeding into the gland. The cause of bleeding is a bacterial infection, most common bacteria being meningococcus Neisseria meningitides. This...
Pages: 9 (2250 words) , Essay , Nursing
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Treatment, Rationale and Management of the Iskemic Ulcer
  Since John is a diabetic patient; ulcer management involves management of both systemic and local factors. Proper control of blood sugars and quitting of smoking is crucial for the healing of the ulcer. The first step would be to cause the load of the...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Case Study , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Food Microbiology
Canobbio described pneumonia as “an inflammatory process of the respiratory tree and alveolar spaces (air sacs) caused by infection” (629). Like all of the common manifestations of infection, people with pneumonia will appear to be significantly ill, with high temperature and their white blood cell...
Pages: 10 (2500 words) , Research Paper , Medical science
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HACCP of Food industry (Yoghurt)
Significantly impact on reducing the number of customer complaints and, more importantly, the risk to the customer that could be posed by the product.Understanding manufacturing process would be useful in understanding the safety management system in proper perspective. Stricter quality control measures at every...
Pages: 12 (3000 words) , Dissertation
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Morals & Ethics in Research
At that time, 74 test subjects fortunately were still safe and alive but more than one hundred experimental subjects had died as result of advanced syphilis. In 1992, the government hired an investigation team and a review panel to investigate the entire project. The review...
Pages: 10 (2500 words) , Assignment , Social science
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A Moderating Effect of Anti-Aging Cream
In consumer markets, they are providing valuable products that provide physical and/or emotional satisfaction from buyers in multiple market segments. Beauty is in the eye of the beholder when it comes to anti-aging products. Anti-aging creams are already regulated by the Food & Drug Administration...
Pages: 11 (2750 words) , Term Paper , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Pharmaceutical Industry in Global Sense
After the termination of the patent in January 2002, brand sales fell to $69m for the first quarter. Generics legislation had a significant influence on the industry, providing motivation for improvement and for a competitive market. The time during which R&D costs could be recouped...
Pages: 11 (2750 words) , Coursework , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Health Economics: The Main Methods of Payment of Health Sector Organizations
Many individuals may choose not to utilize services, merely as they cannot afford either the unswerving expenses, for example, consultations and laboratory experiments, or the indirect expenses, such as special food. Poor families are likely to descend even further into scarcity due to the unfavorable...
Pages: 9 (2250 words) , Term Paper , Macro & Microeconomics
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Management of Minor Dog Bite Wound: Physical Examination and Assessing Risk of Rabies
Thereafter, thorough irrigation of the wound must be done with normal saline or Ringers lactate solution (Presutti, 2001). Tap water is as effective as saline and can be employed for irrigation at home (Garth and Harris, 2009). Copious and timely irrigation reduces the rate of...
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The Basic Pathophysiology on Hepatic Granulomas
Etiology, also known as etiology, is referring to the study of disease’s causation. The common causes of hepatic granulomas can be induced by the use of pharmacological drugs such as allopurinol, phenylbutazone, quinidine, and sulphonamides among others. (Bonilla et al., 2006; Pichardo-Bahena & Méndez-Sánchez, 2002;...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Case Study , Health Sciences & Medicine
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A Patient with a Hypersensitivity to Polysorbate-80
A 66-year-old female with stage III A Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC), was admitted for concurrent platinum-based chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The patient had a history of penicillin hypersensitivity. Carboplatin and paclitaxel is a "gold standard" protocol for good performance status (ECOG 0-2) metastatic NSCLC. The...
Pages: 9 (2250 words) , Case Study , Health Sciences & Medicine
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The Iincidence of Sickle Cell Disease
The incidence of sickle cell disease is predominantly in the regions of the world, where malaria is endemic, with particular emphasis on the continent of Africa. Some of the African people have developed partial resistance to malaria genetically. It is believed that blood oriented diseases...
Pages: 10 (2500 words) , Term Paper , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Useful and Harmful Microorganisms
Members of the genus Staphylococcus have been associated with the production of the enzyme called coagulases. These enzymes protect the microorganism from phagocytosis. Other examples of enzymes that protect the pathogenic microorganisms are the kinases, hyaluronidase, collagenase, and IgA proteases. Staphylococcus aureus, for example, has been...
Pages: 14 (3500 words) , Term Paper , Biology
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Sickle cell anemia
Anemia, as stated previously, is one of the primary symptoms associated with SCD caused by the abnormalities in the red blood cells produced. Anemia is characterized by “shortness of breath, fatigue, and delayed growth and development in children” (“Sickle cell”, 2006, screen 1).SCD has...
Pages: 31 (7750 words) , Dissertation
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Damage on heart valves (physical & artificial) caused by bacteria
(Sexton DJ, Bashore TM, 2002)Untreated this bacterial infection gradually damages the endocardium and causes the heart valve to malfunction. Infection can spread to the bloodstream known as septicemia and also to other parts of the body.Infective endocarditis of the right-side heart valves occurs commonly in...
Pages: 36 (9000 words) , Dissertation
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After the approval is obtained for a particular drug, it can be used for clinical measures. During the period from 1998-2004, around 21 drugs were approved for use that were developed from natural products. The period from 2005-2010 reflects the approval of around 19 drugs...
Pages: 12 (3000 words) , Dissertation
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Treatment for Eating Disorder
 The current evidence base for treatment of anorexia nervosa, in particular, is weak (Berkman, Bulik, Brownley, & Lohr, in press). A classic example from the history of psychiatry is the treatment of neurosyphilis. As recently as the mid-19th century, advanced neurosyphilis with psychiatric manifestations was...
Pages: 15 (3750 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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The advancement of medical research
Researchers also have this responsibility as there is the potential to mistreat research participants, and the resulting ethical and legal frameworks have been developed in response to the mistreatment of research participants. For instance, during the Second World War, the Nazis engaged in medical research...
Pages: 83 (20750 words) , Dissertation , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Usage of Antibiotics to Treat the Bacteria
The main impetus for altering the nucleus has been to overcome resistance. Antibiotics are conveniently classified, quite unjustifiably, into generations; in almost every case a new generation is introduced to overcome resistance to the previous generation. The basic nucleus is re-evaluated to add a functional...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Essay , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Microbiology class, answer for each question in 1 page
g. biofilms Biofilms are formed when microorganisms interact with each other, forming layers on other surfaces. By developing biofilms, microorganisms create their own niches almost anywhere. Biofilms make it difficult to eliminate microorganisms as they protect microbial colonies from disinfectants and antibiotics. They are persistent...
Pages: 8 (2000 words) , Essay , Biology
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How Cross Infection Can Occur and the Strategies for Prevention with Reference to A&E
The findings from a Healthcare Commission Report, publicized June 18, 2007, in the media, identified that trusts were failing to meet some of the standards of the hygiene code, with only 40% meeting all of them. Such findings make it all the more vital that...
Pages: 6 (1500 words) , Research Paper , Health Sciences & Medicine
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Human genetics and microbiology
Similarly, in the marriage between Carol Smith and Gray, it is clear that two out of the four children has a probability of having the HD disease. Basically, Megan and Ben be might having HH or Hh as their genotypes. Moreover, Carol should be a...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Essay , Medical science
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However, fungi can exist in any form either as yeast or hyphae a condition known as dimorphism depending on the surroundings in which it exists. Hyphae fungi are branching slender filaments with or without cross walls. Mould-like fungi include Microsporum, Trichophyton, Aspergillus and Epidermophyton. Yeast-like,...
Pages: 7 (1750 words) , Essay , Medical science
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