Eight years after the publication of Culture’s Consequences, Hofstede added a 5th dimensions, long-term orientation. Based on Confucianism, long-term orientation refers to the degree that culture is orientated towards the future (perseverance and thrift) or is focused on the present (quick results and enjoying one’s self) (Hofstede and Bond, 1988: 16). This cultural dimension was identified through cross-cultural studies carried out in Asia. The original IBM instrument used by Hofstede was not able to detect this dimension due to its lack of significance in Western cultures, which unintentionally created bias in the (Western-designed) IBM questionnaire (Hofstede, 2001: 352). Hofstede had identified the four main cultural dimensions of power distance, uncertainty avoidance, individualism, and masculinity by analyzing questionnaires gathered from IBM employees within different countries, then comparing and contrasting their responses. As stated above, over 116,000 questionnaires from 66 countries were originally analyzed (McSweeney, 2002: 90). However, due to sampling concerns, questionnaires from some countries were removed. Thus the original cultural dimensions were based on the analysis of surveys from 40 countries; of these, only one was from the Middle East, namely Iran (Hofstede, 2001: 44).
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