Coal mainly consists of carbon, aenes like benzene, tluene, xlene, nphthalene and anthracene besides organic compounds of sulphur and nitrogen. Afew alkanes have been detected in the waxy constituents of certain plants. Fr example-nonacosane, 29H60 has been isolated from cabbage leaves and leaves and n-heptane, 7H16 is found to be present in pinus species. Akanes can be prepared in the laboratory from alkyl halides by reduction, drectly with zinc and acetic acid or via Gringard reagent formation followed by hydrolytic work up. Te coupling reaction of alkyl halides reagent also produces alkanes.
Slective reduction of aldehydes or ketones either by Clemmensen reduction or Wolff-Kishner reduction yields alkanes. Akanes are also prepared simply by catalytic hydrogenation of alkenes or alkynes (Nahar & Sarker, 2013)Alkanes are used as solvents especially for dissolving tough to clean greases. Tese alkanes are low boiling liquid alkanes, fr example hexane. Tese greases are usually made up of many different organic compounds. Tis is possible because alkanes are non-polar therefore are able to dissolve in most organic compounds which are non-polar. Akanes do not reactions under normal ionic conditions.
Tis property is referred to as chemical inertness. Terefore alkanes can be stored for a long period of time and can be used to protect other materials from chemical reaction. Fr example, praffin wax is often used to seal jars after home canning of fruits and vegetables. Popane is often compressed to liquid form and sold as liquefied propane fuel. Popane, btane and isobutene are used to pressurise aerosol cans since they are chemical inert. Mst methane is transported by pipeline and ships liquid and is used for heating fuel.
Some is burned in internal combustion engines to power vehicles. Sme is burned as fuel in gas-fired steam power plants to produce electricity. Trough cracking, ehane is converted to ethylene which is either used as a petrochemical raw material or polymerised into plastic called polyethylene. Te products of cracking process are generally used for producing linear alkyl benzenes which are used as the raw material for manufacturing detergents. Lw molecular weight alkanes are refined and liquefied and sold as Liquefied Petroleum (LPG). Fr btane is used as a cigarette lighter.
Akanes with 5 to 7 carbons, smetimes referred to as. ..
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