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Tyler, M. D. (2001). Resource consumption as a function of topic knowledge in nonnative and native comprehension. Language Learning, 51, 257-280

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To prove this fact, two groups of native and experienced nonnative English speaking medical students were placed in the same class. Half of the group in each case was given the topic of the passage to be worked upon and the results generated compared with the baseline results. The results showed that experienced nonnative seemed to relay much on the topical knowledge for comprehending the entire text compared to the natives.A well established speech- in-noise test, a verbal WM (vWM) test, was used in studying the ability to distinguish language properties used in different applications and instances among two categories of Native and experienced nonnative undergraduate medical students who attended to Bransford and Johnsons Washing Text with both groups performing a concurrent task. Half of each group was given the topic of the passage and the other groups not given. A model was then developed to correlate vWM and measure the levels of English proficiency in scholastic outcomes. The results portrayed very poor performance in the latter group as compared to the former group. A correlation test conducted to validate this relationship further indicated the lack of proper linguistic comprehension capabilities among the nonnative speakers who were as well not true bilinguals. The interpretation here is that language learning among the non-native speakers of a language is dependent upon the contexts of usage that keeps eroding over time if the contexts are changed. Effective linguistic development for in adult nonnative speakers demonstrates poor phonemic capabilities for low- level phonemic perception in nonnative speakers compared to the native speakers. This is because non- native speakers hear with an accent hence require the topical knowledge for proper comprehension of the necessary outcomes. Such included reduced use of grammaticality judgments in L2 among the nonnative listeners. ANOVA analysis and box tests for the equality of variance on the levels of linguistic comprehension among the non-native listeners of the English language varied greatly compared to the native listeners. These tests have confirmed that there is a significant correlation in the levels of language comprehension among non-native speakers of a language and their phonemic experiences. Despite the soundness and accuracy of the results generated herein, these
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