In this case, Sith is clearly justified in believing that (e) is true. Bt imagine, frther, tat unknown to Smith, h himself, nt Jones, wll get the job. Ad, aso, uknown to Smith, h himself has ten coins in his pocket. Poposition (e) is then true, tough proposition (d), fom which Smith inferred (e), i false. I our example, ten, al of the following are true: () (e) is true, (i) Smith believes that (e) is true, ad (iii) Smith is justified in believing that (e) is true.
is equally clear that Smith does not know that (e) is true; fr (e) is true in virtue of the number of coins in Smiths pocket, wile Smith does not know how many coins are in Smiths pocket, ad bases his belief in (e) on a count of the coins in Joness pocket, wom he falsely believes to be the man who will get the job” (Gettier, 1963). Gttier demonstrated that knowledge is not acquired as simply or straight-forwardly as philosophers had assumed for over 2000 years. Factual knowledge as simple or self-evident as it so often seems to be.
Tus, te process of learning cannot be taken for granted. Qestions about learning and the acquisition of knowledge need to be posed that can apply to all disciplines, icluding the natural and social sciences, hstory, te arts, mthematics, ad language. Dfinitive answers are hard to come by. “What is Truth? ’said jesting Pilate, ad would not stay for an answer, "wrote Francis Bacon in his Of Truth, Esays or Counsels Civil and Moral (Theory of Knowledge, 2005). have the topic of epistemology ever since the time of Plato.
Sveral different theories of the learning process have gained hold in Western philosophy and education. Oe of these is Skepticism. Septicism maintains that definite knowledge about anything at all is extremely difficult, ad sometimes impossible, t acquire. Tis is because of certain imperfections in the mind which can include faultiness in reasoning, por memory, lmited accessibility to an object of scrutiny, alack in the accuracy of the senses, te possibility of mistaking illusions (such as dreams) for por judgment, the possibility of misinformation.
Septicism relentlessly questions and tends to find fault with certain seemingly common sense notions that most people consider to be “self-evident”. Athough. ..
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