In the first place, there was a cultural status quo which characterized the identity of the Martinican and he wanted to challenge it (Césaire, 2017). Though there were many where against Cesaire that did not prevent him from defending the Martinican. His stand for the truth made him become a friend to Andre Breton who was a surrealist in France, and during the war, he spent his time in Martinique. A book entitled Return to the native land was published after the publisher of France had rejected to publish it for the last eight years where his thoughts on black Africans cultural identity in the setting of the content was expressed (Wellman 2014, p.111).
When Césaire was eighteen years old, he got a scholarship to go and study in France, Paris and the debates for the intellectual were gaining a lot of concern at that time which was aiming at the African distinctiveness. In 1931, he launched a magazine called the "The Black student," and later he joined other two young men. Harlem struggles to ensure that the richness of the cultural identity of the Africans is promoted inspired the young men where Cesaire started to develop ideas of his famous poems. In 1940, he returned back home and became a teacher before involving himself in a political action which was supporting decolonizing French colonies (Kelley, 2000).
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