The criteria states that, adesign is balanced when the largest cell number is not 3 times greater than the smallest cell number. Frther exploration of the variables involved checking the effect of gender to Pre self-esteem variable. Tble 2 gives the descriptive statistics of Pre self-esteem by gender. Tis shows that female scored highly on the pre self-esteem test than male. Idependent sample t-test was adopted for this study. Te test was to check if there was a significant difference in pre self-esteem of runners by gender (Male Tis statistical test is appropriate when one has separate samples under the same treatment condition (Heiman, 2013).
I this case the treatment was running. Te population mean and standard deviation are normally not known. Te key assumptions for the test are the sample populations under study must be independent, te scores in each population must be normally distributed, ad the two populations must have equal variance (Sheskin, 2003). From the descriptive statistics above, te difference in the means indicate that these samples were independent of each other. Te researcher data before the actual analysis by independent sample t-test.
Fequency Table 1 above indicated that there were no missing values. Te box plot also indicated that there were no outliers that could reflect data entry errors in the study. Te skewness and kurtosis values were within the acceptable range of -1. 0to 1. 0(Meyers et al. A independent sample t-test of pre self-esteem by gender was conducted. Mle (n=17, M29.24) and female (n=13, M30.46) had standard deviations SD=6.34 and SD=5. Tis indicates that the two were not further from means since their standard deviations were within acceptable range.
Te means of the two genders indicated that female gender scored higher than male on the pre self-esteem scale (see Table 3 below). Hmogeneity of variance on the pre self-esteem data collected by gender was assessed using Levene’ test of equality of variance. Lvene test indicated non-significant results, F0. Tis indicated that the assumption on homogeneity of variance was met. Te samples varied in testing for normal distribution as the pre self-esteem for male had a small negative while pre for female had zero skewness.
Acording to Meyers, e al. 2006) criteria, sewness was within tolerance level of between -1. 0and 1. 0but kurtosis. ..
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