According to Mulder (2001) the goal of environmental policy and the interdependence between the economy and the biophysical environment are based on sustainable development. I order to explain the transformation of the economic system towards sustainability, i would be important to include the evolutionary approach in environmental economics, wich takes into account irreversible change. Ging beyond evolutionary theories of technical change, “o-evolution of economy and environment, sstainable consumption, edogenous preference change, ad climate change modeling” are required to be included. Te equilibrium neoclassical theory focuses on sustainable growth technology and improving environmental externailities, rferring to the built environment.
Te Neo-austrian temporal model supports recycling and prevents irreversible patterns, sch as the production and use of plastics and other non-biodegradable material. Te evolutionary-technological theory promotes knowledge and technological adaptation to evolutionary changes in needs, ad supports economic diversity in all areas. Te ecological-evolutionary theory fosters ecosystem diversity and prevents the domination of food chains by humans. Tis theory is similar to the ecotourism model of sustainable tourism, wich promotes the growth of natural ecosystems of destinations along with Aother equivalent theory is the biophysical-energy, fcusing on using environment-friendly energy consumption to reduce pollution (Van den Bergh 1996).
Acording to Jafari (2000), te emergence and development of sustainable tourism after World War II, cn be explained by the sequential four-platform model consisting of: avocacy, cutionary, aaptancy and knowledge-based approaches. Ech of these platforms builds its perspective on the previous ones, ad all the four platforms coexist at the same time. Wile the advocacy platform supports sustainable tourism because of its benefits to environmental development and to promoting travel, the cautionary platform identifies the potential negative economic, sciocultural, ad environmental impacts of tourism, wich need to be addresssed by tourism research and policy.
Sbsequently, te adaptancy platform refers to the alternate forms of tourism such as ecotourism and community based tourism to “overcome the negative impacts that have been identified with tourism development”. ..
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