According to Mulder (2001) the goal of environmental policy and the interdependence between the economy and the biophysical environment are based on sustainable development. In order to explain the transformation of the economic system towards sustainability, it would be important to include the evolutionary approach in environmental economics, which takes into account irreversible change. Going beyond evolutionary theories of technical change, “co-evolution of economy and environment, sustainable consumption, endogenous preference change, and climate change modeling” are required to be included.The equilibrium neoclassical theory focuses on sustainable growth based on technology and improving environmental externailities, referring to the built environment. The Neo-austrian temporal model supports recycling and prevents irreversible patterns, such as the production and use of plastics and other non-biodegradable material. The evolutionary-technological theory promotes knowledge and technological adaptation to evolutionary changes in needs, and supports economic diversity in all areas. The ecological-evolutionary theory fosters ecosystem diversity and prevents the domination of food chains by humans. This theory is similar to the ecotourism model of sustainable tourism, which promotes the growth of natural ecosystems of destinations along with other aspects. Another equivalent theory is the biophysical-energy, focusing on using environment-friendly energy consumption to reduce pollution (Van den Bergh 1996).According to Jafari (2000), the emergence and development of sustainable tourism after World War II, can be explained by the sequential four-platform model consisting of: advocacy, cautionary, adaptancy and knowledge-based approaches. Each of these platforms builds its perspective on the previous ones, and all the four platforms coexist at the same time. While the advocacy platform supports sustainable tourism because of its benefits to environmental development and to promoting leisure travel, contrastingly the cautionary platform identifies the potential negative economic, sociocultural, and environmental impacts of tourism, which need to be addresssed by tourism research and policy. Subsequently, the adaptancy platform refers to the alternate forms of tourism such as ecotourism and community based tourism to “overcome the negative impacts that have been identified with tourism development”
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