Most countries in Europe had a renewed sense of humanity, led by intellectuals who undertook research on ways in which individuals with exceptionalities could also be educated. Individuals with sensory limitations were the first beneficiaries of special education, when a Spanish monk by the name Pedro developed “oralism”, which taught lip reading to the deaf people. This accomplishment led to research in other areas of exceptionality, such as blindness. Charles Braille was the brainchild of the Braille technique after he invented the use of raised dots to help blind individuals in reading and writing (ibid). These accomplishments led to the establishment of institutions for people with sensory disabilities in Europe and America. For example, the present-day “Perkins School for the Blind” was founded in Europe in 1829.Following the progress made in educating individual with sensory disabilities, institutions and communal centers were established to take care of individuals with cognitive disabilities. However, most of these institutions were meant to separate the mentally challenged from the mainstream society; rather than to train them in life skills. In the early 19th century, however, Jean-arc-Gaspard Itard developed a pedagogy that he used to improve the language and mental skills of victor, a cognitively disabled boy. From then on, scholars such as Edouard Seguin came up with codes, apparatus, and techniques of teaching cognitively challenged learners. These milestones in pedagogy for cognitively exceptional learners led to the establishment of specialized schools and enactment of legislations to cater for cognitively challenged learners in Europe and America.There was also a rise in advocacy groups pushing for the higher inclusion of individuals with exceptionalities into the society. The advocacy groups also championed for the rights of exceptional individuals to quality education. An example of these groups is the “Council for Exceptional Children” founded in 1922. Research conducted on exceptional individuals revealed that the later were capable of learning, so long as the learning environment was stimulating enough. Since the 1950s, civil rights movements and judicial rulings saw the inclusion of people with exceptionalities in general education classrooms. Legislations were also passed that ensured that people with disabilities were
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