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Special Education

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Most countries in Europe had a renewed sense of humanity, ld by intellectuals who undertook research on ways in which individuals with exceptionalities could also be educated. Idividuals with sensory limitations were the first beneficiaries of special education, wen a Spanish monk by the name Pedro developed “oralism”, wich taught lip reading to the deaf people. Tis accomplishment led to research in other areas of exceptionality, sch as blindness. Carles Braille was the brainchild of the Braille technique after he invented the use of raised dots to help in reading and writing (ibid).

Tese accomplishments led to the establishment of institutions for people with sensory disabilities in Europe and America. Fr example, te present-day “Perkins School for the Blind” was founded in Europe in 1829. Fllowing the progress made in educating individual with sensory disabilities, istitutions and communal centers were established to take care of individuals with cognitive disabilities. Hwever, mst of these institutions were meant to separate the mentally challenged from the mainstream society; rther than to train them in life skills. I the early 19th Jan-arc-Gaspard Itard developed a pedagogy that he used to improve the language and mental skills of victor, acognitively disabled boy.

Fom then on, sholars such as Edouard Seguin came up with codes, aparatus, ad techniques of teaching cognitively challenged learners. Tese milestones in pedagogy for cognitively exceptional learners led to the establishment of specialized schools and enactment of legislations to cater for cognitively challenged learners in Europe and America. Tere was also a rise in advocacy groups pushing for the higher inclusion of individuals with exceptionalities into the Te groups also championed for the rights of exceptional individuals to quality education.

A example of these groups is the “Council for Exceptional Children” founded in 1922. Rsearch conducted on exceptional individuals revealed that the later were capable of learning, s long as the learning environment was stimulating enough. Snce the 1950s, cvil rights movements and judicial rulings saw the inclusion of people with exceptionalities in general education classrooms. Lgislations were also passed that ensured that people with disabilities were. ..

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