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Sparta vs. Athens (Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration) Essay Example

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Sparta vs. Athens (Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration)

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The power was simply held by a group of ephors who were only five men. There was a general call from the constitution to all men to engage in military education at a tender age of seven for training on being tough and self-sufficient. The individual’s life was meant for the state where one lived and died for it. Any form of foreign trade and travelling was banned from Sparta thus locking out foreign ideas thus giving a chance to aspect of surprise when they attacked (Adams).The democracy enjoyed in Athens was flawed since choice was made on eligibility to serve with limited powers and the idea of expelling the speaker in case such a person became very powerful was a normal practice (Bogotch 301-320). There was blatant abuse of this rule and thus did infringe heavily on those freedoms of speech that could be exercised by the citizens. The male citizens were given equal rights and the government majorly did focus on an individual as opposed to state. It is not surprising that Athenian males had full rights such as voting rights and highest ranks in the society, while women who were citizens were still considered minors. At the age of marriage, the fathers did offer their daughter for marriage where they led indoor lives as wives. They were thus condemned to childbearing, sewing and doing house chores. In the Pericles’ Funeral Oration, we find a very damning contempt of women in public life. In this Oration, many references regarding the equality and justice than could be enjoyed in the Athenian life is expressed. In this Oration, it is clear that women did not share any form of equal rights with the male gender and no reference as such does exist when the Athenian people are mentioned, only male race is known. Metics did not have to own land nor take part in any form of government activity since they were considered outsiders (Thucydides 202-209).The Athenian laws did have protection for the slaves against being treated in a brutal manner even without them having any right to property ownership. This is different from the Spartan government whereby the slaves had no law protecting them and were treated brutally and killed in case they were found to be defying the government. Sparta also treated women differently since girls that survived infancy got good public education which was more physical than it could be expected to be academic. These

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Works Cited

Adams, Paul. “On Lycurgus and the Spartans” Xenophon. Accessed 28th September, 2011. <http://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/sparta-a.html>.

Alsbury TL, Shaw NL, Policy Implications for Social Justice in School District Consolidation. Leadership and Policy in Schools, 2005, 4(2): 105-126.

Bates, Clifford, Aristotles “Best Regime”: Kingship, Democracy, and the Rule of Law. Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 2003: 12-26

Bogotch IE, Educational Leadership and Social Justice: Theory into Practice. J. Sch. Leadership. 2002, 12(2): 138-156. Calderwood, P.E. (2003). Toward a Professional community for social justice. J. Transformative Educ. 1(4): 301-320

Collins, Susan D. Aristotle and the Rediscovery of Citizenship, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006.

Galston, William A. Justice and the Human Good. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980: 18-78

Huxley, G. “On Aristotles Best State.” In Paul Cartledge and F. D. Harvey (eds.) Crux: Essays Presented to G. E. M. de Ste. Croix. London: Duckworth, 1985, pp. 139–49.

Johnson, Curtis N. Aristotles Theory of the State. New York: Macmillan, 1990. 85-102

Keyt, David. “Aristotle and Anarchism,” Reason Papers 18 (1993), 133–52. Repr. In Richard Kraut and Steven Skultety. Aristotles Politics: Critical Essays. Lanham MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2005, pp. 203–22.

Thucydides, Peloponnesian War. In The Greek Commonwealth: Politics and Economics in the Fifth Century Athens, translated by Alfred Zimmern. 4th edition (Oxford: 1924), pp.202-209

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preview essay on Sparta vs. Athens (Lycurgus vs. Pericles Funeral Oration)
  • Pages: 5 (1250 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Philosophy
  • Level: Masters
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