During the Middle Ages, those who violated social norms were believed to be witches and were not rational. The punishment was burning at the stake but with time the jurisdiction of central governments broadened their mandate to deal with social conflicts. In the eighteenth century, social philosophers began to embrace the view that human behavior was, as a result, of rationality. People chose to act after weighing costs and benefits. They believed that they would experience pleasure or reduction of pain, as a result, of their actions. Cesare Beccaria called for fair punishment because he believed that people were self-centered and must be motivated by fear of punishment (Siegel, 2007). This theory does not explain why criminals are not perturbed by the severity of punishment when they are apprehended as they continue to commit the crime even when they know what is at stake. Despite this, it has been observed that most of those that committed the crime in the rational theory have reasons as to why they did. For instance the case of street robbery, most of the robbers needed money for hospital, food et cetera. One method of preventing crime is employing the situational crime prevention concept which dictates that planners must be aware of the aspects of sites that are risk to crime. They must know the advantage of illegal opportunities are offered by these sites and prevent crime. Another way is to reduce opportunities for criminal activity through establishing curfew laws to decrease opportunities young people have to engage in antisocial behavior (Siegel, 2007).In the late 19th century, scientists started relying on pure thought and reason. Auguste Comte suggested that societies pass thorough stages and can be. Police Brutality of the Mentally Ill Suspects.
Cole, G. F. (1975). The American system of criminal justice. North Scituate, Mass.: Duxbury
Gardner, T. J., & Anderson, T. M. (2001). Criminal evidence: principles and cases (4th ed.).
Australia: Wadsworth/Thomson Learning.
Hess, K. M., & Wrobleski, H. M. (2006). Police operations: theory and practice (4th ed.).
Belmont, CA: Thomson/Wadsworth.
Kothari, C. R. (2005). Research methodology: Methods & techniques. New Delhi: New Age
International (P) Ltd.
OCinneide, C., Letsas, G., & Campbell-Holt, C. (2010). Current legal problems: Vol. 62.
Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Reckless, W. C. (1961). New Theory of Deliquency and Crime, A. Fed. Probation,25, 42.
Siegel, L. J. (2007). Criminology: theories, patterns, and typologies (9th ed.). Belmont, CA:
Walsh, A., & Hemmens, C. (2011). Introduction to criminology: A text/reader. Thousand Oaks,
Whitehead, J. T., Dodson, K. D., Edwards, B. D., & Whitehead, J. T. (2013). Corrections:
Exploring crime, punishment, and justice in America. Waltham, MA: Anderson Pub.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples