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SCI101-1404A-04 Introduction to the Sciences- Phase 2_IP Assignment

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This technology has revolutionised the manner in which information is collected and manipulated by the computers. Pior to the discovery of semi-conductors, cmputers were very large such that they could hardly be accommodated in a standard sized room. Tey consumed so much power. I the 1950s some of the components, sch as the valve, i the then computers were replaced by transistors resulting in significant reduction in the size of the computer. Cmpanies such as IBM developed interests in transistors and by 1960 a microchip was replacing the transistors.

had several transistors incorporated in it leading to further reduction in the computer size. Son afterwards components such as Microprocessor came into existence heralding an era of microcomputers. A all these transformations took place, cedit goes to silicon based semiconductors that allowed millions of transistors to be fabricated in a small chip. Mcrochips refer to an assembly of miniaturised interconnected electronic components such as microprocessors, rsistors, tansistors that are fabricated or etched on semi-conductors materials such as silicon. Bsically, mcrochips are used interchangeably with integrated circuit to refer to same technology.

Tis is because in both cases there is integration of miniaturised electrical components into a semi-conductor platform. Mcrochips are fabricated on a layer to layer basis onto the silicon materials. Fbrication of these layers is made possible by a process referred to as photolithography that involves chemicals, gses, ad light. Dring fabrication, alayer of silicon (IV) Oxide is applied onto the silicon wafer. Tis layer is then covered by a photosensitive chemical referred to as photoresist. Utraviolet light is then used directed to the photoresist layer such it hardens the areas exposed to it creating the desired circuitry pattern.

Aspecial gas is applied in etching out the remaining soft areas. Auminium or a thin metal is used to create conducting path between the components (Swedin & Ferro, 2007). Atificial intelligence is a term first coined by John McCarthy, a American computer scientist and cognitive scientist, wo defined it as “the science and engineering of creating intelligent machines, epecially intelligent computer programs” where “intelligence is the...

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