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A response to an article The Myth of Language Universals by Evans and Levinson 2009

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Evans and Levinson (2009), explore some of the linguistic diversity extensively neglected by cognitive scientists. In their opinion, it is possible to structure different languages at diverse levels. It is important to structure it into phonetics, phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Structuring languages aids the understanding of the extent of ambiguity in claims that languages are universal.On language diversity, Evans and Levinson (2009), prove that cognitive scientists are insensible of its extent. They note that cognitive scientists cannot prove the presence of substantive universals across languages. This is because they insensible of the degree of language diversity in the entire world. Such insensibility distorts their claims of perfect research and findings. Evans and Levinson (2009), highlight counter-arguments against claims that every language possesses substantive universals. Argument by Evans and Levinson (2009), point at the degree of insensibility to language diversity among cognitive scientists as a key setback in defending their argument.Noteworthy, it is either not mandatory for languages to have constituent structures or fixed arrangement of elements. Languages also have distinct semantic systems. There are an estimated seven thousand languages spoken today, globally. Evans and Levinson highlight an estimate of between five and eight thousand active languages used on a global scale. It is worth noting that there are outstanding differences in dialect among all these various languages. Diversity in language is evident across dimensions. First, languages show variations in sound inventories with some languages lacking sound systems. Second, the assumption that languages have commonalities of syllables and the consonant-vowel universal is misleading.Variations in word organizations as Evans and Levinson (2009), prove also enhance their argument against claims of universal grammar. They prove that not all languages organize their sounds into strings that create alteration of vowels and consonants. Cross-linguistic evidence shows not syntax and word-classes universals as most linguists claim (Evans & Levinson, 2009). The two authors counter the assumption that the four major word-classes are evident in all languages. The main word-classes include nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs. There is a
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