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Research skills

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Difficulties in enforcing environmental regulations due to complex nature of the industry and also due to the fact that most of the shipping processes are not open to public scrutiny (Shi, 2014). Mst of the shipping fleet runs on diesel referred to as bunker oil which is known to be of lower quality than that used by vehicles, terefore, poduces higher emissions per power output as compared to the regulated on-road diesel engines. Te main concern from the research is the emissions of gases that cause harm to at sea and the impact of the emissions on the well-being of those around the port (Expert Project Management, 2010).

Cimate change presents one of global issues that require elaborate response from the international community. Oe of the main contributors to climate change as previously mentioned is greenhouse gas emissions, wich have attracted different opinions from the global community. Acording to Dai (2010) tackling, sch climate change requires establishment of international climate change regime that entails rules, pinciples, nrms, ad procedures that can effectively combat range of activities within field.

Vrious regulations have been developed at national, rgional and international levels with focus to reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Sme of these laws are documented in (UNFCCC) and Kyoto Protocol which are at the helm of promoting international climate change regime (United Nations, 1998). Te contribution of GHG emissions from the shipping industry has been on the increasing trend. Hwever, te producers of GHG companies are excluded from liabilities presented in Kyoto Protocol, wich presents potential shortcoming on international climate change regime that requires further investigations. Te projected in demand for maritime shipping services leads to higher percentage carbon emissions.

Tis requires establishment of efficient and aggressive regulatory policies by (IMO) and UNFCCC. Acording to UNCTAD 2012) approximately 55-77% of total emissions within port regions are caused by ships. Rsearch by United Nations (2005) shows that at berth ship emissions can fundamentally be three to five times higher than emissions at the sea, terefore, dtermines level of concentration of exhaust emissions at ports. Iproving energy efficiency through. ..

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