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Research paper

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The plant was one of the several herbal remedies which was used by the earlier Romans. Een though, is usage as a heart failure medicine can be traced back to the tenth century Europe. Te plant was not used not used for treatment up to when a British scientist called William Withering around 1700s. Dring most period of 1800s the plant was used for treatment of a wide range of disorders and diseases (Graham 23). Te first breakthrough came around 1875 when a German chemist isolated pure digitoxin from plant.

I 1875, Grman chemist Oswald Schmiedeberg first isolated pure digitoxin from digitalis. I 1957, dgoxin was first isolated from D. lnata and currently is one of the leading cardiac glycoside which is marketed around the world today (Graham 91). I South States as early as 1820 the drug was being administered in form of powdered leavesand today is acknowledged by all the pharmaceutical companies Digitalis was admitted into the first edition of the Pharmacopeia of the United States (1820) and is currently recognized by all major pharmacopeias. I America, peparations of the powdered leaves are used to treat asthma, ad it is also used as a sedative, ad also diuretic.

I India however, ontments which have digitalis glycosides are being used to treat burns and wounds (William 61). Tese are primarily purpurea glycoside A. wich yield digitoxin and glycoside B, wich is a precursor of gitoxin. Dring hydrolysis, dgitoxin and gitoxin normally lose sugar moieties, rleasing their respective digitoxigenin, alycones, ad gitoxigenin. Te pathways for biosynthetic synthesis in the production of cardenolides have been known to rely the enzymes of are reliant on the enzymes of progesterone 5 beta-reductase and malonyltransferase (William 13)Cardiac glycosides have a positive inotropic effects because it inhibits sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase.

Te enzyme normally leads to accumulation of myocytes thereby resulting in increased cardiac contractility. Te drugs also have antiarrhythmic activity, hwever, a higher dosage it can induce arrhythmias (William 15). I is a major active substance in Aesculus hippocastanum (plant) which is a horse chestnut tree. Te plant is distributed everywhere because it is highly resistant to environmental conditions. Te IUPAC of Aescin is (2S, 3, 4, 5, 6)-6-{[(3S, 4, 4R, 6R,...

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