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Write a report assessing the feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions of the world Essay Example

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Write a report assessing the feasibility of different techniques for providing fresh water to arid regions of the world

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In water-scarce semi-arid and coastal- arid areas that are inland located where the only available source of water is either (brackish) ground water or saline. This technology of water harvesting has been used since the twentieth century as (Awerbuch, 2004; and Schiffler 2004) report about the global use of desalination capacity and its challenges. About fifty percent of worldwide desalination occurs in the Middle East, followed by North America and Europe. The future usage of desalination is emerging at a high rate with an increasing demand and up- scaling process. It promotes tourism and also acts as a recreation for the development of economy in the coastal regions (Pyne et al, 2004) as reported in the world water development report.It was recently summarized (Asano and Levine, 2004) that there are many challenges associated with water recovery and reuse. They stated that the technique used in water reuse has been employed in many countries such as the United States and Germany. Modern waste water treatment has facilitated its increased usage in up to date waste water treatment procedure. These technological processes can effectively remove environmental material, pathogens and nutrients leaving the treated water with a wide range of prospective applications. According to the water recycle survey (Mantovani et al, 2001) the best water reprocessing projects in conditions of cost-effective and communal approval are those that exchange with domestic water in lieu of clean water for use in cleaning, toilet flushing, environmental restoration, industrial use and for irrigation.Water is stored in reservoirs that are constructed to cope with the growing demand for water in order to provide irrigation, fishing and recreation, hydro power, potable supplies and as well as lowering the impacts and risks that accompany us in times of natural calamities for instance floods and droughts. A dam is an example of a modern water reservoir. It collects water runoffs and stores it as a constant, reliable and available resource. The creation of a dam as a water reservoir enables higher availability of water at any time incase an emergency occurs.This method of transferring water from one basin has bin used in the arid and semi-arid regions for a long period of time to meet water demands. It occur when existing water resources have been outstripped by agricultural, domestic and population increase (Shao et al, 2003) according to a presentation in china.And those

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Asano, T. and Leavine, A. D. 2004, Recovering sustainable

Water from wastewater, Environmental Science and

Technology, June, pp. 201–08.

Awerbuch, L. 2004, Status of desalination in today’s world. S.

Nicklin eds Desalination and Water.

The Online Water Harvesting Community, 2004,


Rainwater Harvesting, 2006, Centre for Science and Environment.


Asano, T. and Cotruvo, J. A. 2004, A Review, Groundwater

Recharge with Reclaimed Municipal Wastewater: Health

and Regulatory Considerations, Water Research, Vol. 38,

pp. 1941–51.

Gleick, P 199, Water in Crisis: A Guide to the

World’s Freshwater Resources, Oxford

University Press, New York.

UNEP, 2005, Sourcebook of Alternative

Freshwater Augmentation in Africa


Tech Pub-8a/index.asp, lvOct05)

Steenvorden, J. and Endreny, 2004, Wastewater Re-use and

Groundwater Quality, IAHS Pub, 285.

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