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Physiology of Urination - Promotion of Continence and Management of Incontinence Essay Example

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Physiology of Urination - Promotion of Continence and Management of Incontinence

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Physiology of Urination - Promotion of Continence and Management of Incontinence.   Some studies have revealed that a possible cause of this condition is due to changes in the frontal lobe of the brain which controls urination; the changes which interrupt the nervous system’s inhibitory functions can sometimes also be seen in diseases manifesting with brain disorder like stroke and dementia (Ouslander, 2007).  An overactive bladder is common among the elderly and often causes them to urinate several times in the day and the night.  Among women who are past their menopausal age, their lack of oestrogen adds to atrophic vaginitis or the thinning of the vaginal tissues, consequently leading to irritation, exacerbating the urinary urgency (Ouslander, 2007). Stress incontinence Stress incontinence “

is the uncontrollable loss of small amounts of urine such as with coughing, straining, sneezing, lifting heavy objects, or performing any manoeuvre that suddenly increases pressure within the abdomen” (Ouslander, 2007).  Among young and middle-aged women this type of incontinence is the most common.  Studies indicate that stress incontinence is credited to the weakness of the urinary sphincter which is often caused by childbirth, by pelvic surgery or by the abnormal position of the urethra or the uterus (Ouslander, 2007).  Again, for postmenopausal women, their lack of oestrogen weakens the urethra’s resistance to urine flow and among men, prostate surgery may cause stress incontinence, especially if the upper part of the urethra is injured (Ouslander, 2007).  Obesity also increases pressure on the abdomen and the bladder, thereby producing urinary incontinence. Overflow incontinence Overflow incontinence is known to be the uncontrollable leakage of small amounts of urine from the bladder which does not empty well (Ouslander, 2007).  This condition may be caused by a blockage or a weak bladder contraction due to nerve damage or bladder muscle weakness (Ouslander, 2007).  Due to blockage or due to the inability of the bladder muscles to contract, the bladder becomes enlarged.  . Physiology of Urination - Promotion of Continence and Management of Incontinence.

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Ouslander, J., Leach, G., Staskin, D., Blaustein, J., Morishita, L., & Raz, S., 1989, Prospective evaluation of an assessment strategy for geriatric urinary incontinence, Journal of American Geriatric Society, volume 37, number 8, pp. 715-724

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