In their study, the prevalence was "3.8% for 2 months of exclusive breast feeding, 2.3% for 3-5 months, 1.7% for 6-12 months, and 0.8% for more than 12 months" for obesity and overweight. The authors concluded that prolonged breast feeding is a useful preventive measure for the development of childhood obesity and overweight and that such a measure will decrease the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and other morbidity and mortality associated with obesity. According to a systematic review conducted by Arenz, Ruckerl, Koletzko et al (2004), breast feeding has a "small but consistent protective effect against obesity in children." In the meta-analysis of the study, "the adjusted odds ratio was 0.78, 95% CI (0.85) in the fixed model." In the study by Bergmann, Bergmann, Von Kries et al (2003), the researchers proved that bottle feeding in early days of life is predictive of obesity later in life. In another study by Owen, Martin, Whincup et al (2005), it was ascertained that the mean BMI is lower among breast fed subjects throughout lifetime when compared to those who are top fed. Such and other studies have implied the role of breast feeding in the prevention of obesity.Methodology is a means of justifying the articles selected for the review. The methodology must be essentially extensive and detailed. Planning is essential for proper methodology. For proper planning, organization of focus question is essential and helps in thorough search for relevant literature. Reviews are labor intensive and require a lot of skill in terms of the searching technique and the actual reviewing (Parahoo, 2006). In due anticipation of a long and involved task, the. Breast Feeding and Childhood Obesity.
Arenz, S., Rückerl, R., Koletzko, B., von Kries, R. (2004). Breast-feeding and childhood obesity--a systematic review. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord., 28(10), 1247-56
Bergmann, K.E., Bergmann, R.L., Von Kries, R. (2003). Early determinants of childhood overweight and adiposity in a birth cohort study: role of breast-feeding. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord., 27(2), 162-72.
Burns, N., Grove, S. K. (1997). The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique and Utilisation. 3rd edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Co.
Eisenmann, J.C., Bartee, R.T., & Wang, M.Q. (2002). Physical Activity, TV Viewing, and Weight in U.S. Youth: 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Obesity Research, 10(5), p.379-385
Kahn, D.L., 2000. Reducing Bias. In: Cohen, M.Z., Kahn, D.L. and Steeves, R.H. (Eds.). Hermeneutic Phenomenological Research: A Practical Guide for Nurse Researchers. London: Sage Publications Inc, 85 – 92.
Noller, D.T. & Paulk, D. (2005). Childhood Obesity. JAAPA, 18(12), 32 to 38.
Owen, C.G., Martin, R.M., Whincup, P.H. (2005). The effect of breastfeeding on mean body mass index throughout life: a quantitative review of published and unpublished observational evidence. Am J Clin Nutr., 82(6), 1298-307.
Parahoo, L., 2006. Nursing research: Principles, Process, and Issues. London: Macmillan.
The Role of Media in Childhood Obesity. (2004). The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Available at: http://www.kff.org/entmedia/upload/The-Role-Of-Media-in-Childhood-Obesity.pdf [Accessed 22nd December, 2009]
Von Kries, R., Koletzo, B., Suaerwald, T., et al. (1999). Breast feeding and obesity: cross sectional study. BMJ, 319(7203), 147–150.
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