Line spectra will generally be sharp and distinct positioned at a particular wavelength whereas a continuum will be spread over a wider area of varying wavelengths. Crrent that passes through the tungsten filament causes the release of copious amounts of electrons. tngsten has a high melting point and is electron rich therefore very suitable as a filament material. Te cathode structure focuses the electrons into a beam that is accelerated by a potential diffenceat anode of thousands of volts until they strike the surface of anode.
Te Xray tube is evacuated so that the air between the filament and the anode target don’t scatter electrons. Te sides of the tubes is made of glass to allow the x-rays to pass through. Te slight angling of the anode allows for wider dispersal of x-rays. Trget should be material that withstands heat. Wen an electron hits the target in an X-ray tube, mch of its energy is dissipated as heat. A the tube voltage increases however, te efficiency of the conversion of the energy of beam to x-rays increases with energy of the incident electrons impinging on the target being dissipated as heat energy on the anode target.
The efficiency of conversion is also directly proportional to the intensity of x-rays, tbe current, ad the atomic number of the target material with elements having a high atomic number like tungsten having the best conversion efficiency (IAEA, 1992, p. A can be seen from the two graphs above, achange in tube voltage causes a change in the wavelength and the intensity of x-rays produced no in wavelength results in increasing the tube current.
Te energy of the X-rays produced by a tube depends upon the energy of the electrons striking the target. Te energy of the striking electrons is controlled by the tube voltage and thus an increase in tube voltage results in the generation of more energetic/penetrating x-rays (shorter wavelength). O the other hand, a increase of tube current only increases the intensity of the X-ray produced but does not affect the energy of the x-rays produced (IAEA, 1992, p. Wen beam of falls on an object, i interacts with it such that some of it is transmitted through, sme absorbed and some scattered in other directions.
In simple scatter, te incident photon energy is much less than the binding energy of the electron in an atom. Te photon is scattered without change of energy (Jerrold. ..
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