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Physical chemistry

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(Atkins & de Paula, 2006)A catalyst accelerates a chemical reaction without undergoing a net chemical change. The catalyst reduces the energy of activation by altering the path of reaction to avoid the rate determining step, wich is the slowest step in a reaction (Atkins & de Paula, 2006). Fr example, dcomposition of hydrogen peroxide, wich is a slow reaction at room temperature, rquires activation energy of 76 kJ/mol. I the presence of iodide ions, tis activation energy drops to 57 kJ/mol and rate constant increases by 2000. Ctalysts as: Hmogenous catalysts, wich are of the same phase as reactants.

Bomide acts as a homogenous catalyst during decomposition of hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution. Tese catalysts usually act as proton donors or acceptors. Hterogeneous catalysts, wich are of a different phase from reactants. Nckel catalyses the gas-phase hydrogenation of ethylene to ethane. I this catalysis a reactant is chemisorbed into the surface of a catalyst and modified to facilitate the reaction. Terefore, rte of reaction depends on the surface area of the catalyst. Acatalyst only accelerates a reaction the energy of activation.

A the energy of activation is reduced, bth forward and reverse reactions are equally favoured. S, tere is no net effect on the reactant and product amounts. Te system only reaches equilibrium faster. Amonia finds many applications in different industries, a an organic solvent and as a precursor to many chemicals such as urea and nitric acid, aong others. Hber process is commercially used to manufacture ammonia in large scale. Ntrogen from air combines with hydrogen from methane to form ammonia in an exothermic Bth gasses are passed through the reactor and cooler through several cycles to improve yield.

O cooling, amonia gas liquefies and is separated. Ion acts as the catalyst with potassium hydroxide as promoterReaction rate: Te catalyst causes a lowering of activation energy for the reaction. Icreased surface area of the iron catalyst would mean an increase in reactant adsorption and greater yield. I order to widen the lattice and to enlarge the catalyst surface area, ametal oxide is used as promoter (Cotton & Wilkinson, 1988). L Chateliers principle: to the a increase in concentration of one of the reactants should favour the formation of ammonia gas.

Hwever, a increase in nitrogen. ..

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preview essay on Physical chemistry
  • Pages: 8 (2000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Unsorted
  • Level: Undergraduate
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