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Philosophy Essay

Answer one question
By maximizing utility, the aggregate of the good consequences should outweigh the aggregate combination of whatever different combination of actions possible. Utilitarianism, in essence, suggests greatest happiness for the greatest number. Utilitarianism tries to maximize utility irrespective of whether rights are respected or violated in the process. According to utilitarianism, something is a right only if it contributes to the overall utility and only when the contribution is greater than
Pages: 4 (1000 words), Essay
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Final exam (take home)
Ultimately, those who defend the right to Mills version of freedom of speech often find it difficult to support their position when it is proved that this freedom even in the abstract can harm others. However, he makes a very valid point in stating that dissenting voices should never be silenced since as history has proven in many occasions, the fact that an opinion is held by many people does not necessarily make it correct. By emphasizing that all opinions should be considered irrespective
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Contemporary worldview summary paper
Indeed, this group of people will find praying as a useless action which will only take up time which the children could have used to learn more. However, just like representatives of other religions, atheists will oppose this practice considering it to be oppressive.It would also be rather advantageous to analyze the situation in question from a rather unexpected point of view: people who are not religious at all. In spite of the fact that the majority of the population state that they belong
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Hume and the Problem of Induction
The first claim of Hume is negative: a priori cannot be from any knowledge that is not observed. Rather the priori must be derived from the knowledge that has been gained through observation and experience. Imagine an individual who has never heard about snow leave alone seeing it. For the first, he or she is shown a snowball and asked to make a prediction even before he or she has touched it, whether it will be hot or cold. Spontaneously, any person can predict that the snowball will be
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What it means to live a good life
Choose to differ by arguing that happiness is not the meaning of a good life because there are people who live a good life by doing what is not right. Aristotle is, however of the view that an act must be desirable in order for it to qualify as what it means to live a good life (Irwin 11). Acts such as stealing, raping, killing are not desirable acts in life. This means that a life of crime does not entail what it means to live a good life. Doing bad things causes agony and frustration among
Pages: 5 (1250 words), Essay
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Compare Hermeneutics with Critical inquiry
The two selected theory i. Hermeneutics and Critical theory are mainly compared with the intention to develop a better understanding of the two along with identifying the effectiveness of each of the theories in the present day context (Roberge, 2011). The key issue of debate among the two philosophies Hermeneutics and Critical theory is due to the differences in the opinion of Hans-Georg Gadamer and Jurgen Habermas, and between Richard Rorty and Thomas McCarthy respectively.It has been
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Aristotle's ethical theory
Humans act by principles a feature that influences their needs. Aristotle therefore deduces that humans live specific types of life that requires the guidance of rational principle. Good people uphold virtuous principles thus achieving excellence. Happiness thus oozes naturally from the excellence since it originates from the originally cultivated virtues.In the above explanation, Aristotle claims that happiness is a lifelong objective. As people amass wealth, make friends and seek knowledge,
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Philosophical Ethics: Naturalism
People understand morality as something that nature instills into their biology through an end that life sets. Nature thus sets the point and shape of moral life. Naturalism helps in providing a ready link between value and facts, and between the normative and non-normative. It thus helps to avail resources to deal with vital meta-ethical problems. Ethical naturalism is a cognitive position that provides a base for grounding moral norms in natural facts. Human beings require cognitivism since
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What is the main general/abstract claim defended by Protagoras in his entire speech (Protagoras 320c-328d), and how do the other points he makes purport to provide support for this claim
However, the same shall not happen if a child grows up in a community, which has a setting of virtues and punishes evil doers in the society. In the speech, Protagoras claims his is one of the few people who can show the way of deeds and virtues and become a leading example to other society members through practicing civic virtue.In the speech, Protagoras, clearly points out the logic of his argument claiming, “Virtue is teachable.” He devotes his time to argue rhetorically, displaying the
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Intro to philosophy
However, fire as the moving force of the order of the things in universe (kosmos) can be interpreted not in a straight way as the fire which is one of four elements. In this passage fire can be presented as analogy of the thing which nature is the most close to the force Heraclitus was trying to describe. Fire itself is the element that has certain features that remind Heraclitus the order of things, as it can get inflamed and disappear in extinct. Also, fire never stops as far as flame is
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Present your argument evaluation and counterargument
This focus on nature being the reason for intelligence was first started in the late 1800’s, coinciding and consistent with the scientific discoveries made by Gregor Mendel and Charles Darwin regarding the role of inheritance as well as natural selection. The first prominent contributor for this psychological perspective was Francis Galton, who in his book "Hereditary Genius: Its Laws and Consequences” focused on how intelligent and talented individuals naturally tend to come from families
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The Modernist Explosion: Culture, Literature, Art and Film in German-speaking Europe, 1900-1933
It is my opinion that the setting of the story in a military school is highly ironic because the military is an institution known for discipline and the actions taken by Torless and his associates I consider to be not only inappropriate, but against the spirit which is the embodiment of order.One of the most significant themes that are encountered in The Confusions of Young Torless is that of sexual awakening and this is seen through Torless’ encounter with the prostitute Bozena after he and
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FreeWill and Determinism
However, it is worth to note that this is not a clear definition since an action can result to internal cause yet it is not free. For instance, even though sneezing has internal cause, it is not a free action. Secondly, they argue that an action is free only when it is due to agent’s beliefs and desires. Even though this seems to be acceptable, it is still faced with counterexamples since there are cases where an action is caused by agent’s desires and beliefs yet the action is not free.
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Who would you rather study with. Aristotle or Plato
Therefore, Aristotle would make a better person to learn with because of his valid scientific arguments.While both Plato and Aristotle contributed hugely to political philosophy and shared some sentiments on the ideal state, Aristotle still had some of his reservations on some of Plato’s philosophical teachings. While Plato advocated for communism in which he called for abolition of ownership of private property, Aristotle was a harsh critic on the abolition of private property. Plato was of
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Last man and overman
Soul is like spirit, ego, thinking, and desire. Soul has contempt for the body, but it is only a spirit. Soul as spirit is immoral. Spirit without the body is the structure of the soul of last man. The soul cannot go beyond manmade happiness. The chapter “On the Despisers of the Body”, you are what your body is “Body am I, and soul”. The body created the ego and the spirit and it serves to itself. The self is the body and the spirit that the body created. The body is a great
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The evil god challenge
To overcome this problem, there is the need to prove that the all-knowing, maximally good, and all-powerful god may permit some evil for the purpose of a greater good (Stenger, 2014). The second problem, which is the evidential problem, is founded on the assumption that the second argument is incompatible with the first argument logically, but on the assumption that the second argument avails good evidence against the first argument. In this perspective, the amount of evil at this point becomes
Pages: 6 (1500 words), Essay
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Are the virtues of justice, prudence, and beneficences suffient for a good life
In the opening sentence of the book, Smith argues that even though human beings may be selfish, they still care about the happiness of other people (Roberts, 2014). Although one may not benefit from the happiness of others, they are usually pleased to see that they are happy. Smith argues that a human being should be totally virtuous in order for the economic system to function in such a way that it can maximize wealth.As a philosopher, Smith argues that there is more to life than material
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Two Requirements of Mental State
Five rejected that human brain is necessary for mental states. In addition, he claims that if what in the patient’s head is a digital computer, then he cannot have mental states. All doctors are represent some philosophical theories. #1 is an identity theorist, #2 believes functionalism and Dr. #3 is a Cartesian. #4 is behaviorist and #5 represents parts of John Searle’s view that against machine can possibly think. This paper will focus on discuss Dr #1 and Dr #5.It is important to
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Death is more universal than life
This idea is perfectly described in the book of Ecclesiastes, who claims that he had gone through a lot and had seen many things in his life, however, he realized that although people can live different lives and they indeed can be wise and fools, but all of them die and this is inevitable for everything that exists (The New Jerusalem Bible, Eccles.The definition of death makes it possible to say that death is universal because it concerns everyone and everything that exists. However, the claim
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Analyze and assess at least one of Berkeleys arguments for immaterialism
It was a mistake for Locke to suggest that ideas of primary qualities had the status that was special since they rose from several senses. Even though, the corpuscularism hypothesis produced results that were interesting (Shapiro 1986). Berkeley thought science was going to outgrow this hypothesis. Learning to depend directly on what was thought for it concerning new experiences rightly anticipated.Berkeley protected common sense compared to skeptical challenges yet insisted that objects that
Pages: 9 (2250 words), Essay
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