Plato’s Phaedo details the final days of the great philosopher Socrates. This is a dialogue between Socrates and his student Phaedo, narrated from the latter’s perspective. Here Socrates discusses the nature of the afterlife along with other relevant arguments including the immortality of the soul and the nature of recollection. As the argument proceeds, a man recollects things he must have known at some previous time. Socrates offers four arguments to explain the immortality of the soul.The doctrine of recollection suggests that all learning is a matter of recollecting what we already know. This is possible due to the immortality of the soul. The soul carries knowledge of things from our previous lives, which we tend to forget at birth. However, the forgotten knowledge can be recovered by recollecting the knowledge through proper questioning. The very act of recollection of the knowledge forgotten at birth is a sound testimony to the fact that our soul existed even before we were born. As the soul is immortal, the knowledge it gathers remains with us prior to our birth. But we forget it at birth, which can be recovered again by recollection. The main implication of Socrates’ doctrine of recollection, thus, maintains that the soul exists prior to birth, which further means that the life of the soul extends beyond the life of the body.Q3: In Metaphysics A, Aristotle maintains that universal first principles are "the hardest for men to know" and yet "[the] most knowable". Explain how these apparently conflicting descriptions can be reconciled?Aristotle’s Metaphysics is one of the greatest philosophical works by the author and the first major work of the branch of philosophy by the same name. The work includes discussion of a number of Aristotelian ideas addressing the primary philosophical topics. The metaphysical treatises of Aristotle are referred to different books named by Greek letters such as Alpha or A (Book 1), little alpha or (Book 2), Beta or B (Book 3), and so on. Metaphysics A is the first among the Aristotelian treatises. It outlines the Aristotelian notion of ‘first philosophy’, which is a knowledge of the first principles or causes of things. Aristotle suggests that the thorough knowledge of first causes and principles makes wise men eligible to command rather than to obey.The knowledge of the causes and
Cahn, Steven M. Classics of Western Philosophy. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2002.
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