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# Parphrase the report for me ( protus programme )

Hence for the obtained swing value, 1=R2 and Vb =0 would be true. ALow Pass Filter allows signals with frequency components lower than a given cutoff frequency. Te Low Pass Filter also attenuates signals that have frequency components higher than the specified cutoff frequency. I this design, te cutoff frequency is made to be 100Hz. Awell calibrated operational amplifier is used to achieve LPF circuit. Te LPF section and frequency calculations are as shown below; Te LPF is connected with the amplifier. Te amplifier is acting as voltage follower hence making the act as a buffer too.

I is important to note that the amplifier has a infinite or high input impedance in order to avoid loading the LPF. o the other hand, te amplifier is characterized with low output. Te low output signal prevents the filter cutoff frequency point from being effective. Tis is achieved by changing the output load resistance. Te combined parts form a circuit as shown below; Fom the output signal obtained above, te level shifter output shifts the signal from zero to 2. 5volts in a of 100 seconds.

Acording to design requirements, te output voltage signal should lie between 2 volts and 3 volts. Terefore, te frequency of input current signal of -2. 5A to 2. 5mA becomes; Te design of an 8-bit counter can be achieved by using D flip-flop. Aso, i is imperative to write the table of current stage and next stage. Tis method enables construction of various types of counters; 2bit, 4bit, 8bit. Te internal circuit of an 8-bit counter is as shown; A7 segment display is usually made up seven independent LEDs.

Te display normally deals with 8-bit output signals and later converts them to 7 segments. I most cases, a7 segment display comprises of two common cathode and common anode. Atable can be constructed by using POS equation to design configuration of LEDs. Atually, aNAND gate is used in the design of LEDs. Te table is as shown; Ntably, te first four bits represent Most Significant Bits while the rest of the bits represent the Least Significant Bits. Te figure below shows Least Significant Bits and the Significant Bits of the Analog to Digital...

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