Programming languages vary widely in this surface form. Mst programming languages are textual — that is, tey consist of sequences of "words" and "punctuation marks", mch like written natural languages. Hwever, sme exotic programming languages are partly or entirely graphical — such graphical programming languages (or "visual programming languages") use spatial relationships among stylized pictorial representations to communicate their meaning. Rgardless of their surface form, al programming languages also specify a semantics, o "meaning", fr each syntactic construct in the language. Iternally, al data in modern digital computers are simply as zeros or ones (binary).
Te data typically represent information in the real world such as names, bnk accounts and measurements and so the low-level binary data are organized by programming languages into these high-level concepts. Te particular system by which data are organized in a program is the type system of the programming language; te design and study of type systems is known as type theory. Lnguages can be classified as statically typed systems, ad dynamically typed languages. Satically-typed languages can be further subdivided into languages with types, were each variable and function declaration has its type explicitly declared, ad type-inferred languages.
I is possible to perform type inference on programs written in a dynamically-typed language, bt it is entirely possible to write programs in these languages that make type inference infeasible. Smetimes dynamically-typed languages are called latently typed. Dta structure is a way of storing data in a computer so that it can be used efficiently. Oten a carefully chosen data structure will allow a more efficient algorithm to be used. Awell-designed data structure allows variety of critical operations to be performed, uing as little resources, bth execution time and memory space, a possible.
Dta structures are implemented using the data types, rferences and operations on them provided by a programming language. Snce programming languages are artificial languages, tey require a high degree of discipline to accurately specify which operations are desired. Pogramming languages are not error tolerant; hwever, te burden of recognizing and using the special vocabulary is reduced by help messages generated by the...
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