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Outline and evaluate the contribution in the study of football hooliganism by the 'Leiscester school'

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Leicester University scholars responded to earlier theories that tried to explain football hooliganism and how it could be approached, through a ‘figuration sociological approach’ that borrowed heavily from the theory of civilizing process by Norbert Elias (Spaaij, 2006). One of the school’s explanations was that over the years, values that are characteristic of a civilized behaviour had manifested in several classes across Europe, though the civilization behaviour had not adequately penetrated the lower classes of workers. Thus the theory tried to establish a relationship between the lower classes of the society and football itself (Spaaij, 2006). Dunning and his research colleagues identified fighting as one of the ways in which these groups experienced some excitement, status and defined their meanings, as males in a lower working class trying to struggle economically and socially (Spaaij, 2006). Their aggressiveness could not be totally blamed on the way the lower social class groups were integrated in the society. There is a tendency for lower working class in the society to generate some specific norms compared to the norms of those in the high levels of the society; these norms helps them to deal with high levels of aggression in areas where there are social relations and are prevalent in males (Dunning et al.The above explanation by the Leicester school of thought has been the most consulted concept and forms the basic platform to inquire into causes and behaviours of fans in football hooliganism. In addition, the concept laid the back ground to investigate the nature of hooliganism, and has inspired many scholars across Europe in the last two decades to base their studies on such a social perspective to understand the occurrence of hooliganism in football matches. However, some scholars have found this explanation not convincing and have made some critics on different perspectives.For instance, Giulianotti (1999) claimed that Dunning’s assertion was highly generalized to attain a universal applicability and making it irrefutable in the scholarly work. In other words, critics viewed the figuration approach to be approaching teleology, though the Dunning’s approach still remains the most consulted body of research today (King, 2002). The problem with Leicester school approach was that most European
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preview essay on Outline and evaluate the contribution in the study of football hooliganism by the 'Leiscester school'
  • Pages: 8 (2000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Sociology
  • Level: Undergraduate
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