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Description of Oceanography Science

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Fond of experiments, this trip became a memorable voyage because it gave him an interesting perspective on the nature of the impressive geographical features and remarkable current patterns of the Bosporus Strait, the two-layer flow. This sparked his imagination and moved him to perform deep observation and experimentation. He decided to measure the density of waters at various locations in the Bosporus Strait and the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Then, he measured the speed of the Bosporus surface current. Afterward, he determined the depth at which the flow reversed direction.

Then he finally concluded that the Bosporus currents were just a simple consequence of the different water densities in the Black and Mediterranean Seas. Then, he published his observations and experiments in a book entitled “ Observations around the Bosporus Strait or True Canal of Constantinople, Presented in a letter to Her Sacred Royal Majesty Queen Christina of Sweden” , originally written in Italian in 1681. This marked the history of Oceanography wherein the Black Sea and the Bosporus Strait played an important place (Soffientino & Pilson, 2005). Therefore, in Marsigli considered two equally important foundations that made his place in initiating oceanography.

These are: “ his conceptual preparation toward explaining what he would eventually see, and the unique and easily accessible features of the Bosporus region” (p. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), admits that prior to satellite data, knowledge and information about the oceans had come from sporadic measurements collected from ships, floats, and drifters, gathered in a relatively small area in the oceans. The data and information collected are not sufficient to describe the conditions of the diversity of Therefore, launching ocean-observing satellites brought us into a new era of marine discovery.

Global mapping of seasonal changes in ocean surface topography, currents, waves, winds, phytoplankton content, sea-ice extent, rainfall, sunlight, and sea surface temperature are all become possible due to remotely sensed satellite data and modeling techniques.  

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