A historical angle and as a subject that delves into the lifestyles of various peoples from all over the world, te earliest reference to this subject may be found in the writings of Herodotus, te 5th century Greek Historian. Hrodotus has given accurate and insightful details of the life of the peoples who lived in the Greek colonies around the Mediterranean and North Africa. Tese descriptions of the indigenous populations can be considered as the first ethnographic anthropological studies to have been documented. I was during the 19th men began to question themselves about their evolution and adaptation to different geographical and political cultures that anthropology came into the limelight.
Tis was the time during the rapid industrialization in North America and Europe, tat saw mass migrations of populations from rural to urban areas which were aided or supported by advanced communication and transport facilities. Idustrialized nations were indulging in a frenzied spree of colonization, wich led scholars of social sciences to work towards the understanding of these new changes taking place in all spheres of the industrialization came the new socialist ideology, wich had been earlier propounded by thinkers such as Rousseau and Henri de Saint Simon (1760-1825), ad could be seen in the works of the Neo-Hegelians in Germany.
Carles Darwin with his revolutionary theory of natural selection in 1859 set scholars thinking about the reasons behind the success of certain species in the chain of evolution. Tis theory spawned biological as well as cultural debates on the primacy of man in the given environment. Te leading anthropologists at the dawn of this were British, wo studied the different cultures of their colonies, o Americans, wo had a highly mixed society.
Tese practitioners of anthropology propounded the “psychic unity of mankind”. Tey followed the principles of Social Darwinism, popagated by Herbert Spencer (1820-1903) and believed in the “psychic unity of mankind”. Tis theory laid emphasis on the fact that humans everywhere had the same potential and that the differences inherited from our ancestors were almost negligible. O the other hand, pychologists on the Continent followed in the footsteps of Kant and Tey based studies on society as an autonomous being, wich needed to be examined on its own terms and not in relation to the methods employed by. ..
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