Such a position does not go far enough, hwever. Ay attempt to account for higher brain functions in terms of the physical organization of the brain itself and of its constituent neurons is confronted sooner or later with the need for a detailed analysis of consciousness based on brain structure. Nurobiologists begin to define ‘Consciousness’ ostensively by contrasting situations where it is present and absent—for example, stuations where one is conscious of something as opposed to not being conscious of that thing. Tat is, cnsciousness can partly be terms of the presence or absence of phenomenal content.
‘ind’, b contrast, rfers to psychological processes that may or may not have associated conscious contents. Tere is considerable evidence, fr example, fr a ‘cognitive unconscious’. Ad ‘soul’ traditionally refers to some essential aspect of human identity that survives bodily death. Aother relatively safe bet is the claim that the way in which the world is modeled by an organism in its conscious experience has been biologically useful for the creature in its evolutionary history. Tis phenomenological model of the improved the likelihood of the organisms survival and the production of offspring more than other kinds of phenomenological organization have done or the absence of conscious experience could have done.
Athough it is difficult to trace the evolution of consciousness as long as we do not know the neurobiology on which it is based, i is encouraging that even ethologists have started to take the animals point of view and talk about their mental states and consciousness (Cheney & Seyfarth, 1990). Athough philosophers never abandoned talk about consciousness as as did neuroscientists, cnsciousness was rarely treated explicitly as the main topic during the murky days of behaviorism.
Ientity theorists, b contrast, uashamedly asked the question, "s Consciousness a Brain Process? "(Place, 1956). Te three most prominent manifestations of the problem were the recurrent discussions and arguments about subjectivity, qalia, ad intentionality. Prhaps the most remarkable landmark of the consciousness and subjectivity as the main focus of the philosophy of mind was the publication of Thomas Nagel classic article, "hat Is It Like to Be a Bat? 1974. I article, Ngel analyzed what it means for an. ..
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