Jones, 2007). In this case, the individual mimics a particular exercise but uses it in a controlled manner. It is always advisable to engage in dynamic stretching when preparing for sports events (Amiri-Khorasani, Osman & Yusof, 2011). Nonetheless, static stretching can help with exercise and warm-ups. Herbert and de Noronha (2009) also confirm that the technique involves passive stretching of a particular muscle to mild discomfort levels where an individual holds the stretched muscle for a longer period. The method is the most preferred due to its effectiveness and safety. In fact, static stretching is the best technique for warm-ups and mild exercises. However, the most common and celebrated technique in exercise and warm-ups is the PNF (proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation) (Fernández-Seguín et al. In this case, an individual collaborates with the other to help in alteration of relaxation as well as the contraction of antagonist and agonist muscles. PNF involves push phase of around 10 seconds then a relaxation phase for the same period (McGrath, Whitehead, & Caine, 2014). However, experts attribute the technique greater flexibility thus the research focuses on outlining some of the PNF techniques. Of all stretching techniques, research findings recommend PNF as the most appropriate. Neuromuscular Stretching: Stretching Techniques and Warm-ups in the Sport and Exercise Science.
Amiri-Khorasani, M., Osman, N. A. A., & Yusof, A. (2011). Acute effect of static and dynamic stretching on hip dynamic range of motion during instep kicking in professional soccer players. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 25(6), 1647-1652.
Fernández-Seguín, L. M. et al., (2013). Effectiveness of Neuromuscular Stretching with Symmetrical Biphasic Electric Currents in the Cavus Foot. Journal of the American Podiatric Medical Association, 103(3), 191-196.
Fryer, G., & Pearce, A. J. (2013). The effect of muscle energy technique on corticospinal and spinal reflex excitability in asymptomatic participants. Journal of bodywork and movement therapies, 17(4), 440-447.
Herbert, R.D., & de Noronha, M. (2009). Stretching to prevent or reduce muscle soreness after exercise (Review). The Cochrane Collaboration, 1(1), 1–31.
McGrath, R. P., Whitehead, J. R., & Caine, D. J. (2014). The Effects of Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation Stretching on Post-Exercise Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness in Young Adults. International Journal of Exercise Science, 7(1), 3.
Park, K., & Seo, K. (2014). The Effects on the Pain Index and Lumbar Flexibility of Obese Patients with Low Back Pain after PNF Scapular and PNF Pelvic Patterns. Journal of physical therapy science, 26(10), 1571.
Woods, K., Bishop, P., & Jones, E. (2007). Warm-up and stretching in the prevention of muscular injury. Sports Medicine, 37 (12), 1089–99.
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