Each year we are in the farthest distance from the Sun on July 3, and in the nearest distance on January 3. That is, the Sun is the farthest from us in summer and the closest to us in winter. Consequently, we cannot explain the occurrence of seasons by our planet’s distance from the Sun. The reason for this is the axial tilt, in other words, the inclination of the angle made between the Earth’s rotational axis and its orbital plane. The alternation of seasons is caused by the fact that the axial tilt and the direction to which the axis points remain invariable all over the year. North Pole constantly points to Polaris in Ursa Minor. If we turn to Polaris at any points of the Northern Hemisphere, we invariably turn to the North.Seasons come about in the following way: On March 22, each year the Sun is above exactly the Equator. This is one of the two days when both daylight and nightlight last for twelve hours all over the world and on the Northern Hemisphere it is vernal equinox. Although the North Pole still points to Polaris, it is shifting towards the Sun during the three months that follow the equinox. In the first quarter of the year the Sun is rising higher and higher each day. Therefore the days get longer and the nights shorter in spring as long as on June 22, the North Pole points to the Sun. It does not face the Sun, however, only makes a 66,5° angle with it. On the Northern celestial sphere the Sun rises at its highest peak on this day. We call it summer solstice. From then on the North Pole is gradually moving away from the Sun. On the Northern Hemisphere days will be shorter and shorter as we are approaching autumnal. The motion of the Earth around the Sun and the effect of this in respect of temporal orientation.
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