By the year 2005, significant progress had been made in achieving many of the MDGs. By the year 2002, as compared to 1990, an increase of 21 percent was achieved in overall incomes. Populations in extreme poverty declined by 130 million people, there was a reduction in child mortality rates from 103 deaths per 1,000 live births a year to 88, an increase was recorded in life expectancy from 63 years to nearly 65 years; there were increases by 8 percent and 15 percent in the number of people in the developing world who received access to water and improved sanitation services respectively (Sachs 2005: 9). Progress in achieving the MDGs and the extent to which they have been achieved are not uniform in all the developing countries. Further, there are extensive disparities within countries, with the highest poverty in rural areas, although urban poverty is increasing rapidly and is under-reported by traditional indicators. “Sub-Saharan Africa is the epicenter of the crisis, with continuing food insecurity, a rise of extreme poverty, stunningly high child and maternal mortality, large numbers of people living in slums, and a widespread shortfall for most of the MDGs” (Sachs 2005: 9). The region with the most rapid development in Asia, however, it continues to have hundreds of millions of people in extreme poverty and failure in non-income goals. .
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