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Migration and Sexual Health Essay Example

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Migration and Sexual Health

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To the late part of the 20th century, there has been a continued increase of African migrants drawn from various countries into the United Kingdom. According to Spencer (2010), this trend of migration has been promoted by the fact that UK is perceived to be a greener pasture for the African migrants who believe they can easily secure well paying jobs in the country, and gain access to quality education. However, Arthur et al. (2012) added that some African migrants opted to migrate to the UK as asylum seekers in order to evade the hostile political environment that is normally associated with numerous African countries.This study on migration and sexual health will focus on three critical areas but first it will highlight on the immigration and integration policies of the UK and the experience of migration and integration for African migrants in the UK. In the main body of the report, the first the section will provide a discussion on of migrants. Secondly, the study will discuss the reasons as to why migrant men-who-have-sex with men are at more risk of acquiring sexually transmitted diseases than their heterosexual counterparts. Thirdly, the study will focus on whether the sexual and reproductive health of migrants is gendered in its effects.In the writings by Kupiszewski (2013), he wrote that the UK has a well elaborate immigration policy that provide legal guidance as to who is permissible to enter as well as remain within the UK boarders. The immigration policy has grouped migrants into two broad categories that comprise of people seeking for asylum since their home countries present to them dangers in various forms. The second group of migrants comprise of those people who are simply migrating into the country to take advantage of the economic and educational benefits offered by the UK.With references to the writings by Spencer (2010), he stated that as much as the UK wishes to attract more people into the country in order to invest, work, and study, it has also placed stringent migration polices in order to limit the migration of non-citizens of European countries and even minimize the illegal use of migration routes.Under the migration policies, the common visa requirements is that a migrant should prove his health status/ condition, financial status and provide valid reason as to why he or she is seeking entry into the country.In regards to the integration policy, Kupiszewski (2013) stated

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References

Arthur, J. A., Takougang, J., & Owusu, T. Y. (2012). Africans in global migration: searching for promised lands. Lanham, MD, Lexington Books.

Beyrer, C., Baral, S.D., vanGriensven, F. Goodreau, S.M., Chariyalerstak, S., Wirtz, A., & Brookmeyer, R. (2012) Global epidemiology of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. The Lancet. 380(9839):367-377

Brigantes, V. (2012). Race, Sex, HIV and its implications in the United Kingdom. Retrieved from: http://www.westernspring.co.uk/race-sex-hiv-and-its-implications-in-the-united-kingdom/. Accessed on [18.04.2014]

Boskey, E. (2014). Why Do Gay Men Have an Increased Risk of HIV? Retrieved from: http://std.about.com/od/glbtcommunity/a/Why-Do-Gay-Men-Have-An-Increased-Risk-Of-Hiv.htm. Accessed on [18.04.2014]

Chothia, F. (2013). How welcome are Africans in the UK? Retrieved from: http://www.bbc.com/news/world-africa-25111177. Accessed on [17.04.2014]

Crooks, R., & Baur, K. (2014). Our sexuality. (12th Edition) Belmont, CA : Wadsworth, Cengage Learning

Higgins, J. Hoffman, S. and Dworkin, S. (2010). Rethinking Gender, Heterosexual Men, and Women’s Vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. American Journal of Public Health Association. Vol. 100(3): 435–445.

Kupiszewski, M. (2013). International migration and the future of populations and labour force resources in Europe. Dordrecht, Springer.

Millett, G.A., Peterson, J.L., Flores, S.A., Hart, T.A., Jeffries, W.L., Wilson, P.A., Rourke, S.B., Heilig, C.M., Elford, J., Fenton, K.A, & Remis, R.S. (2012) Comparisons of disparities and risks of HIV infection in black and other men who have sex with men in Canada, UK, and USA: a meta-analysis. The Lancet. 380(9839):341-348

Mole, R. Parutis, V. Gerry, C. and Burns, F. (2014). The impact of migration on sexual health, behaviors and attitudes of Central and East European gay/ bisexual men in London. Ethnicity & Healthy, Vol. 19 (1) pg 86 – 99

Rutter, V., & Schwartz, P. (2012). The gender of sexuality: exploring sexual possibilities. Lanham, Md, Rowman & Littlefield Publishers.

Spencer, S. (2010). The migration debate. Bristol, Policy Press.

The Joseph Rowntree Foundation (2013). Migrants, Integration and Local Neighbourhoods: Fresh Evidence From Three Studies. Retrieved from: http://www.jrf.org.uk/media-centre/migrants-integration-and-local-neighbourhoods-fresh-evidence-three-new-studies. Accessed on [17.04.2014]

Van Look, P., Heggenhougen, K., & Quah, S. R. (2011). Sexual and Reproductive Health a Public Health Perspective. Burlington, Elsevier Science.

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