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Nosocomial Infections Issue Essay Example

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Nosocomial Infections Issue

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Nosocomial Infections Issue. It was reported that there was an increase in the number of fatal cases of sepsis from 4% in 1991 to 37% in 1999 in the UK due to MRSA. By the 1980s MRSA had spread and become quite common in US hospitals and along with resistance to Methicillin. There was a steady increase in oxacillin (Methycillin) resistant S. aureus in U. hospitals in the year 1997 which increased to 26.( Pfaller et al,p1886). Most of these Staphylococcus aureus also showed resistance to tetracycline and erythromycin. Aminoglycoside resistant Staphylococcus aureus had already become common all over the world in the late 1980s( Bawdon et al,p1075). Vancomycin was the only effective antibiotic against Staphylococcus aureus available at that time.

However, in the year 1996 VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain was first isolated in Japan and was soon found in hospitals of England, France and by 2002 in the US (Bozdogan et al,p864). However, recently in the year 2011, a modified form of vancomycin, engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D- Ala-D-Lac binding showed potent antimicrobial activity against VRSA(Xie et al, p13946). Vancomycin resistance was also seen in enterococci in a species-dependent manner-3% of Enterococcus faecalis and 50% of Enterococcus faecium showed resistance to Vancomycin. (Edmond et al, p1126).Organisms associated with hospital-acquired infection are frequently resistant to antibiotics. Major factors responsible for this increased prevalence of resistance are changes in the types of organisms causing nosocomial infection which may further be due to changes in hospital populations and changes in the instrumentation and procedures used in patient care, increasing the prevalence of naturally acquired resistance phenomenon and irrational use of antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics may be considered to be an evolving process which is driven by the selective pressure of excessive use of antibiotics. In the hospital, the ICU (intensive care unit) which are crowded with debilitated patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, provides the perfect environment for the emergence of antibiotic resistance (Flaherty & Weinstein, p236). Nosocomial Infections Issue.

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REFERENCES

Bawdon et al. "Antibiotic resistance in anaerobic bacteria: molecular biology and clinical aspects." . Rev Infect Dis 1 (1982): 1075-95. Print.

Bozdogan, Bülent, Duygu Esel, Cynthia Whitener, Frederick A. Browne, and Peter C. Appelbaum. "Antibacterial susceptibility of a vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureusstrain isolated at the Hershey Medical Center." Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 52.5 (2003): 864-868. Print.

Bradford, Patricia A. "Extended-Spectrum -Lactamases in the 21st Century: Characterization, Epidemiology, and Detection of This Important Resistance Threat."Clinical Microbiology Reviews 14.4 (2001): 933–951. Print.

Caini et al. "Hospital-acquired infections due to multidrug-resistant organisms in Hungary." Euro Surveill 18.2 (2013): 1-13. Print.

Edmond, et al. "Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Bacteremia: Risk Factors for Infection." Clin Infect Dis 20.5 (1995): 1126-1133. Print.

Flaherty, John P., and Robert A. Weinstein. "Nosocomial Infection Caused by Antibiotic-Resistant Organisms in the Intensive-Care Unit." Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology 17.4 (1996): 236-248. Print.

Flemming. Penicillin. Nobel Laureate, 1945. Web. <http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/medicine/laureates/1945/fleming-lecture.pdf>.

Fridkin, Scott K., Sharon F. Welbel, and Robert A. Weinstein. "Magnitude and prevention of Nosocomial Infections in the Intensive Care Unit." Infectious Disease Clinics of North America 11 (1997): 476-496. Print.

Gardner et al. "Nosocomial management of resistant gram-negative bacilli." J Infect Dis141 (1980): 415-417. Print.

Nelson, Richard W. Darwin, Then and Now: The Most Amazing Story in the History of Science. S.l.: IUniverse Inc, 2009. Print.

Pfaller et al. "International Surveillance of Bloodstream Infections Due to Candida Species: Frequency of Occurrence and Antifungal Susceptibilities of Isolates Collected in 1997 in the United States, Canada, and South America for the SENTRY Program." (1998): Print.

Trouillet et al."Ventilator-associated Pneumonia Caused by Potentially Drug-resistant Bacteria." American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine,157.2 (1998): 531-539. Print.

Wallace et al. "Nosocomial bloodstream infections in United States hospitals: a three-year analysis." (1992): Print.

Xie , et al. ""A Redesigned Vancomycin Engineered for Dual d-Ala-d-Ala and d-Ala-d-Lac Binding Exhibits Potent Antimicrobial Activity Against Vancomycin-Resistant Bacteria." J. Am. Chem. Soc. 133.5 (2011): 13946–9. Print.

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preview essay on Nosocomial Infections Issue
  • Pages: 4 (1000 words)
  • Document Type: Essay
  • Subject: Biology
  • Level: Undergraduate
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