However, in the year 1996 VRSA (Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) strain was first isolated in Japan and was soon found in hospitals of England, France and by 2002 in the US (Bozdogan et al,p864). However, recently in the year 2011, a modified form of vancomycin, engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D- Ala-D-Lac binding showed potent antimicrobial activity against VRSA(Xie et al, p13946). Vancomycin resistance was also seen in enterococci in a species-dependent manner-3% of Enterococcus faecalis and 50% of Enterococcus faecium showed resistance to Vancomycin. (Edmond et al, p1126).Organisms associated with hospital-acquired infection are frequently resistant to antibiotics. Major factors responsible for this increased prevalence of resistance are changes in the types of organisms causing nosocomial infection which may further be due to changes in hospital populations and changes in the instrumentation and procedures used in patient care, increasing the prevalence of naturally acquired resistance phenomenon and irrational use of antibiotics. Resistance to antibiotics may be considered to be an evolving process which is driven by the selective pressure of excessive use of antibiotics. In the hospital, the ICU (intensive care unit) which are crowded with debilitated patients receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics, provides the perfect environment for the emergence of antibiotic resistance (Flaherty & Weinstein, p236). Nosocomial Infections Issue.
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