A new technique for the control of hospital Methicillin resistant isolates though present were not notably troublesome because of the emergence and prevalence of microbial resistance especially MRSA( methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) in hospitals. The major antibiotic-resistant pathogen associated with nosocomial infection. It was reported that there was an increase in the number of fatal cases of sepsis from 4% in 1991 to 37% in 1999 in the UK due to MRSA and to the USA by the 1980s (4). Aminoglycoside resistant Staphylococcus aureus had already become common all over world in the late 1980s( 5) strain was first isolated in Japan and was soon found in hospitals of England, France and by 2002 in the US(6).
However, recently in the year 2011, a modified form of vancomycin, engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D- Ala-D-Lac binding showed potent antimicrobial activity against VRSA. Vancomycin resistance was also seen in enterococci in a species-dependent manner-3% of Enterococcus faecalis and 50% of Enterococcus faecium showed resistance to Vancomycin. Alexander Fleming had warned us against the irrational use of antibiotics stating “ The time come when penicillin can be bought by anyone in the shops.
Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily underdose himself and by exposing his microbes to non‐lethal quantities of the drug make them resistant” (2) However it is not only the irrational use of the drugs that cause antibiotic resistance but there are reports of the naturally occurring resistance. According to an experiment conducted by Joshua and Esther Lederberg in 1952, penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria developed much more before the start of penicillin in medicinal Joshua Lederberg and his student Zinder also demonstrated the pre-existence of Streptomycin resistance strains.
The causes of the development of antimicrobial resistance include selective pressure-survival and proliferation of resistant strains when treatment with antibiotics kills susceptible micro-organisms in a microbial population
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