However, recently in the year 2011, a modified form of vancomycin, engineered for Dual D-Ala-D-Ala and D- Ala-D-Lac binding showed potent antimicrobial activity against VRSA. Vancomycin resistance was also seen in enterococci in a species-dependent manner-3% of Enterococcus faecalis and 50% of Enterococcus faecium showed resistance to Vancomycin. Alexander Fleming had warned us against the irrational use of antibiotics stating “The time may come when penicillin can be bought by anyone in the shops. Then there is the danger that the ignorant man may easily underdose himself and by exposing his microbes to non‐lethal quantities of the drug make them resistant” (2) However it is not only the irrational use of the drugs that cause antibiotic resistance but there are reports of the naturally occurring resistance. According to an experiment conducted by Joshua and Esther Lederberg in 1952, penicillin-resistant strains of bacteria developed much more before the start of penicillin in medicinal practices. Joshua Lederberg and his student Zinder also demonstrated the pre-existence of Streptomycin resistance strains. The causes of the development of antimicrobial resistance include selective pressure-survival and proliferation of resistant strains when treatment with antibiotics kills susceptible micro-organisms in a microbial population. Antimicrobial Resistance Bacteria and Microorganisms.
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