Any membrane like the plasma membrane is made to adapt to abiotic stresses. The abiotic stresses restrict the growth, distribution and reproduction of an organism. The abiotic stresses include things like extreme cold temperature, light, drought, salt and physical pressure among others. The availability of the proteomics in a membrane has shown that organism is able to cope with extreme cold temperature (Valentine and Valentine 2010). In any organism, freezing temperature is followed by water changing to ice affecting the cellular metabolism. In case an organism or cell is placed a freezing temperature, the membrane fall into functional decline.
The functional decline of a membrane includes the fluidity of membrane decline, the ion homeostasis maintenance and metabolic and transport activities. Many organisms have membranes which are able to adapt to different climatic condition including the freezing temperature. The process in which the membrane adapts to cold temperature is referred to as cold acclimation processes. Through the process of cold acclimation and use of membrane proteome the organisms freezing tolerance is determined. The process of cold acclimation involves change of and protein found in the membrane.
The microdomain is a sub-domain for membrane made of proteins and lipids. Microdomain proteome provides an insight for the functions and changes that takes place during the process of cold acclimation. The proteins associated with cold acclimation are accumulated and found at microdomain fractions. Those proteins involved in cold acclimation include aquaporins, P-type ATPases and tubulins. During cold acclimation, the dynamin and clathrins related proteins are more concentrated in the microdomain (Ziegler and Kramer 2014). The membrane plays crucial role in cellular homeostasis and of signal like freezing temperature.
The proteins contained in the membrane serve as an important feature in determining the ability of an organism or cell to tolerate freezing condition. Some animals are not able to survive in freezing environment.
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