The constructivism theory encourages dialog in learning between students and teachers. How individuals acquire knowledge becomes the focus in this theory. It purports that challenges and questions lead to acquiring knowledge in learning mathematics through engagement in problem solving and the environment. The aim of this theory is to improve teaching and learning in classes through engagement of both students and teachers. This theory model faces challenge in creating situations that support students’ explanation while at the same time engaging them. It is the most current form of learning model in mathematics classrooms.Jean psychological studies started with focusing why children gave wrong answers that were different from adults. His work mainly evolved around the conscious development of children rather than all learners (Brown & Desforges, 2013). In teaching mathematics, it is useful in developing curriculum for different levels depending on the understanding of the children. He was the foremost individual to illustrate the cognitive theory of the development in 1936. In his work, he discovered that children are born with fundamental structures on which learning and knowledge to gain depend on. The purpose of his theory was to expound on processes and mechanisms by which human beings develop to use hypotheses in reasoning and thinking. The reasoning applies in solving mathematical problems that student face. Furthermore, he explains that learning process require active students who do mathematical practices with orientation to solve the problems.Bruner acknowledged the ability to develop thinking from cognitive development. In his studies, he described categories, concepts and more importantly the ability to invent things by students (Lefrançois, 2012). The theory is vital in encouraging invention by students, which is applicable to mathematical learning by encouraging students to develop their knowledge. The cognitive development involves interacting with other human beings culturally that affects individual’s capabilities. Students should find solutions to mathematics problems by interacting with one another and the teachers.In his work, Bruner argues that language is vital in deal with concepts. It can act as stimuli to motivate an individual by helping in developing concepts in an easy way to understand in developing individuals. He also suggests that learning does not involve the transfer of knowledge but
Alan H. Schoenfeld. (2013). Cognitive Science and Mathematics Education. London: Routledge
Brown, G. & Desforges, C. (2013). Piagets Theory. London: Routledge
Harasim Linda Learning (2012). Theory and Online Technology. London: Routledge
Hoyles, C., & Lagrange, J.-B. (2010). Mathematics education and technology: Rethinking the terrain : the 17th ICMI study. New York: Springer.
Instructional design. 2015. Constructivist Theory (Jerome Bruner). Web. March 23, 2015. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/constructivist.html
Lefrançois, G. R. (2012). Theories of human learning: What the professor said. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.
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