Training has to be just-in-time and not one-way communication (Woodward, 2007). People should be made to understand why they need to understand something. Managers too worry because they fear losing the power or authority they have enjoyed so far. This requires top-down communication which had been ignored in the case of Marriott. The middle managers at Marriott were entrusted with the responsibility of involving and empowering the staff, encouraging participation, and giving them authority to do things they could never think of doing (Dodwell & Simmons, 1994). The middle managers in the process felt lost and neglected. They became confused about their own roles and power. This situation occurred because proper top-down communication was lacking during the change process. This means managers too need to be trained ahead of time as there is a tendency to shift towards negativity during times of change.Culture plays a vital role during the change process. During change management, resistance to change occurs due to environmental pressure and uncertainty is caused by the organization culture, says Schein (Lakomski, 2001). To make the process smooth and in order to change the culture, organizational learning needs to take place. Such planning ahead can help the organization to deal with the internal and external environments. Usually change becomes necessary when the culture starts stagnating and infusion of new culture can bring about tremendous change. An effective manager can transform the current stagnating culture into a productive culture. The manager needs to understand the dynamics of culture. This may require unfreezing the old structure and refreezing may have to be undertaken. Refreezing means that changed behavior and new assumptions have to be embedded so that anew culture is born through which the organization is effectively able to manage change. In this change model, the role of the leader in managing change is vital because the manager needs to be competent to able to diagnose the situation and respond to the changes in the environment on an on-going basis.Cultural-fit is also important during the mergers and acquisitions because it can have a demoralizing effect during the change management process. At Wolverhampton & Dudley Breweries plc (W&DB) UK, the initial imbalance could be overcome due to the right leadership (Pollitt,
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