Words that relate just by meaning, form lexical relations, can take various forms: synonymy is when all the semantic components of the words are similar; antonyms are created when one component of the meanings differs; and hyponymy is the case of an extra component is added to differentiate one word from the other.The antonym is a lexical opposition. It was traditionally classified as a contrastive paradigmatic construction (meaning a complex lexical construction that unifies with other constructions, resulting in syntagmatic usage). Unlike other paradigmatic relations, antonymy is both a lexical and a semantic relationship2. Unlike synonyms and hyponyms, antonyms can only exist in binary form.It is also thought that, unlike synonyms and hyponyms, the antonym can only be a contrast set of only two words. But, depending on the meaning, words may have different antonyms. Besides the natural binarity of the antonym, there is also the possibility of a brighter spectrum of contrast. For instance, the antonym of happy would be: sad. But “angry” is also very different from happy and can easily be used to contradict it.Coordinated Antonymy, a discourse –functional category – it indicate exhaustiveness of the scale involved. It neutralizes the difference between normally opposed categories, by considering them and all the instances in between, as being true.Transitional Antonymy (i.: from X to Y; turning X into Y) – indicates a shift from one state, action or thing to its opposite. This function require semantically contrasting (i., non-identical) referents. The Linguistics Theory.
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