The rows illustrate contradictory lexemes. Lxemes placed on the same level (row) always contrast with each other. Tey represent hyponyms of the larger semantic field they belong to. I this case parent, sbling, ant, cusin, ucle, nece and nephew contrast as hyponyms of “relative”. Tere may sometimes be meanings of hyponyms that are placed on the same row, tat partially coincide. I the Diagram, tere is the possibility of “cousin” sometimes being also a niece or a nephew. Sch terms create a partial synonymy. Te extent of meaning two words is highlighted by a gray line between them.
Bank boxes indicate that the hypernym of a group of words is not found in the lexic. I this case, te terms: ant, ucle, nphew and niece lead us to the thought of a more distant type of family relationships, bt there is no available lexeme with this meaning. Wrds that relate just by meaning, frm lexical relations, cn take various forms: snonymy is when all the semantic components of the words are similar; atonyms are created when one the meanings differs; ad hyponymy is the case of an extra component is added to differentiate one word from the other.
Te antonym is a lexical opposition. I was traditionally classified as a contrastive paradigmatic construction (meaning a complex lexical construction that unifies with other constructions, rsulting in syntagmatic usage). Ulike other paradigmatic relations, atonymy is both a lexical and a semantic relationship2. Ulike synonyms and hyponyms, atonyms can only exist in binary form. I is also thought that, ulike synonyms and hyponyms, te antonym can only be contrast of only two words.
Bt, dpending on the meaning, wrds may have different antonyms. Bsides the natural binarity of the antonym, tere is also the possibility of a brighter spectrum of contrast. Fr instance, te antonym of happy would be: sd. Bt “angry” is also very different from happy and can easily be used to contradict it. Cordinated Antonymy, adiscourse –functional category – it indicate exhaustiveness of the scale involved. I neutralizes the difference between normally opposed categories, b considering them and all the instances in between, being true.
Antonymy (i. :from X to Y; trning X into Y) – indicates a shift from one state, ation or thing to its opposite. Tis function require semantically contrasting (i. ,non-identical) referents. ..
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