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Biological and psychological aging

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  The first hypothesis is the cross-linking or glycation hypothesis of aging. The findings here reveal that with age, our proteins, DNA, and other structural molecules develop inappropriate attachments or cross-links to one another. The developed redundant links reduce the elasticity or mobility of proteins and other molecules. The enzymes called protease are responsible for the breaking down of damaged or unwanted proteins. Therefore, due to the cross-linkages developed the activity of the protease gets inhibited. Consequently, the unwanted and damaged proteins hoover around and can result in problems and The second hypothesis is oxidative damage contributes to aging.

Human or animals cells metabolism releases oxygen free radicals as a byproduct. These free radicals are toxic, and it is the role of cells antioxidants to sop up and neutralize these free radicals. However, some radicals escape the cleanup process and end up damaging the DNA, proteins, and mitochondrial. The damage known as oxidative damage and accumulates over time. Research conducted on fruit flies reveal that oxidative damage is a direct cause of aging. These free radicals cause the cross-linking proteins, damage to the DNA, and the formulation of age pigments(Sevini et al. , 2014, pp.

234-235). Oxidative damage is also a contributing factor in many age-related diseases such as diabetes, cancer, Alzheimer’ s disease and heart diseases.   Third hypotheses assert that genome maintenance contributes to aging. Human DNA experiences damage throughout the lifespan: it can be a result of mistakes in replication, oxidative damage, or outside environmental factors such as toxins or radiation. The egg or sperm cells usually hold genes that undergo mutations; that is, spontaneous changes in the of our genes.

These mutations are passed on to future generations if they are not so potentially disruptive as to be fatal to our offspring. However, mutations that occur in the rest of the body cells affects only the individual and cannot be passed on to future generations.    

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