Whatever the type of the microphone is, al have one thing is common. Tat is the diaphragm which is actually a thin paper or a thin piece of aluminum or plastic, lcated in the head of a typical microphone, ad vibrates when it catches sound waves produced by differences in air pressure (see Fig. Vbrations in this diaphragm cause vibrations in other modules of the microphone as well which causes them to get converted to electrical signals that are actually the sound that we hear. Al microphones can to as transducers that convert one form of energy (input) into another (output).
Mcrophones that convert acoustical energy directly into electrical signals or the other way round without requiring any peripheral power supply are called passive transducers. Te electrical output comes directly from the acoustic power these transducers absorb thus making these “strictly limited by the conservation of energy” (Calvert). Eamples include dynamic, mgnetic, pezoelectric and dc-polarized condenser microphones. Ative transducers produce electric current straight in response to the environmental stimuli and control “an external source of power” (Calvert).
carbon microphones and RF-condenser microphones. Al magnetic microscopes that operate according to the law of induction are called velocity transducers. Hre, te principle is that the output electrical current is proportional to the velocity of the displacement of the diaphragm that occurs as a result of vibrations. Al microphones share one characteristic that is looked for when we have to assess what microphone is best suited for which application. Tis is called directionality. Tis tells how much a microphone is sensitive to sound coming from different directions. Sme only sound from one direction while some absorb sound coming from all or a combination of directions.
Sch microphones are called directional microphones. Drectionality is of three types (WiseGEEK): Onidirectional microphones absorb sound coming from all directions. Tese are also called pressure transducers. Teir front face only is showing to the sound field and the diaphragm tends to pick up all sound vibrations equally that hit its surface no matter which direction they are coming from. Plar pattern is the name given to the. ..
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