Nation-states have lexical priority over all other institutions and their national interests are defined in terms of power; eery state aims at the satisfaction of these interests by maximizing power (Donnelly 2000: 78). Te primacy of nation-states and national interests in realism underscores the importance of the belief in sovereignty, nn-intervention, ad the non-use of force, wich have been the fundamental principles of the international system since the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648. Fr realists, srvival is the key national interest and, hnce, n state can act on of an overarching morality and concern for humanity, wich humanitarian intervention demands.
Rther, sates intervene because of strategic and national interests. Frther, laders of states – entrusted with the responsibility of formulating rational foreign policies – have no moral right to engage their armed forces in bloody battles where their states’ immediate and long-term interests are not involved. Ideed, “c]itizens are the exclusive responsibility of the state, ad their state is entirely their own business” (Parekh 1997: 56). I addition, lgitimizing humanitarian intervention in the form of international law rise to the problem of abuse and preemption.
Bcause states tend to intervene in accordance with their national interests, ad since there is no objective determinant of whether a conflict can be deemed as a humanitarian crisis, cuntries may use the pretext of humanitarian intervention to pursue their national interests. I such intervention is legalized, srong states can always use it to their advantage against weaker nations (Wheeler & Bellamy 2001: 558). Te basis for this last argument has evolved from the tendency of states to abuse the on use of force, a enshrined in Article 2(4) of the Charter of the United Nations (UN), b employing the excuse of self-defence.
Te American intervention of 2003 in Iraq provides an excellent case for the elaboration of this point. Te United States (US) attacked the sovereign Middle Eastern nation due to the perceived threat from Iraqi weapons of mass destruction (WMD). Fllowing the failure of unearthing any such WMD, te program of the war was conveniently changed to offer a humanitarian face: te delivery of the people Iraq from tyrannical rule of a murderous despot.
Hwever, a early as the fall of 2002, mre than 30 leading realists had written a.. .
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