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How have existing fiscal mechanisms (rules and practices) tried to overcome or alleviate a "tragedy of the commons" dilemma

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Indeed, eidence from financial bodies such as the Organization of Economic Co-operation and development suggest that make-up of financial adjustment is paramount for fiscal sustainability (Berthélemy & Varoudakis 1996, 12). Cnsolidations, wich heavily rely on, tx cuts and increases in public ventures have been unsustainable while consolidations with structural reforms in their public expenditure reforms have lasting effects and financial growth by extension. Perhaps this is because they have dealt with major types of expenses showing a stronger upward drift. The same results have been confirmed in developing well.

Te major difference has been that there is better mobilization of tax funds that support consolidation; cances of sustainability greatly increase (Ostrom 2010, 26). Ater surpassing the fiscal deficit, te amount of government expenses will most likely have an effect on economic growth. Ahigher level of public expenditure can negatively influence resource distribution and growth through a number of channels. These then directly or indirectly add rigidity to the budget and make it difficult to control or monitor fiscal balance (Berthélemy & Varoudakis 1996, 132). Cnsequently, tey accelerate taxation and occasionally reduce incentives to invest, sve, inovate, ad take part in the labor market.

Hge government expenditures are always aided by intrusive regulations that often trigger private investment and participation. Aditionally, wen they become bigger, sending programs can sometimes become unfruitful, epecially when they are poorly designed due to little government effectiveness or when they give rise to more opportunities for rent-seeking and corruption. Tus, te impact of government spending programs on growth can, terefore. b particularly sensitive, lrgely depending on the governance quality (Ostrom 2010, Eperimental does suggest that make-up of expenditure matters a great deal for growth (Ostrom 2010, 26).

Aministrative expenditures that enhance quantity and efficiency production factors are deemed as productive since they directly contribute to higher growth. Lkewise, ependitures that help enforce the rule of the law, sfeguard property rights, ad assist transactions can be viewed as productive- although different schools of thought differ regarding the reasonable government expenditure. Conversely, ...

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