Many students from elementary to high school have the same problems with understanding mathematics. Oe of students biggest problems is the inability to represent their thinking. Rpresentations can be oral, nmeric, dawn, cncrete, o a computer, ec. Astudent may understand a problem in its oral form, fr example, bt the written version of the same problem may stump the student because they incorrectly make the transition from the words and symbols on the paper to their mind when they attempt to reason out the answer. Tis was the Fennells experiment where an elementary student gave the correct response to an oral math problem in the form of a story but could not give the right answer when the same questions representations became numerical (Fennell, 2001, 289).

Mny other students problems lie in their weakness in mathematical vocabulary. Mth, o course, i taught through the medium of language, s Thompson believes that "students need to master this [mathematical] language if they are to read, uderstand, ad discuss mathematical ideas. "Students often cannot remember the correct vocabulary terms and ad other times, msuse terms resulting in further confusion.

Wakness in mathematical vocabulary can make understanding and explaining a mathematical concept extremely difficult (2000). Aother problem, acording to Werner Liedtke, a education professor in math, i that many people "feel its alright to muddle your way through what some people call some basic notions of arithmetic" and this attitude is easy to adopt if a person has had earlier problems with elementary mathematics. (edyna 2002, Pess). Ephasis on speed on math classes may also be a problem for large of students.

Aswers are expected too quickly and that puts stress on the students. Ledtke expresses, "e lose many, mny students because of the emphasis on speed in math classes. W have children waking up at night, faring the next days speed test. "(Dedyna 2002, Pess). Wy do students suffer from these problems? Te representation problem, frst off, my be because the students are not given the choice of how to represent their thinking. Te representation is imposed on them whether they are strong with that form not. Sudents their own methods of learning best using the representations they find most logical but if they are put in a situation where they cannot use those methods, te math. ..

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