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Gulf War Oil Spill of 1991 Essay Example

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Gulf War Oil Spill of 1991

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The degree of these spills is comparatively minor, not exceeding 100 gallons, and has insignificant damages to the economy. Larger oil spills such as the Gulf War oil spill of 1991, result in significant destruction to both the environment and economy. The Gulf War oil spill adversely impacted on aquatic plants and organisms, including fish (Saenger, 1994), thus significantly leading to a fall in fish supply and a corresponding decline in revenue. Further, polluted beaches were increasingly unattractive for tourism purpose leading to a massive decline in revenue from tourism (Owen & Pickering, 2006). Agencies of the government, which act on best interest of the public, are entrusted to attain reparation from liable parties for the economic damages that take place due to the oil spill. It is important to consider how economists define economic values of natural resources before starting to contemplate how economic damages ought to be estimated from such an enormous oil spill (Brauer, 2009).The spill brought about reduction in the supply of oil, thus subsequent hike in prices both within and outside the Gulf region.The Gulf War oil spill led to oil price increase in 1991 (Bridge & Le, 2013). There was reduced total national output as a result of the massive losses incurred during the spill. There was a subsequent negative economic speculation in regard to oil prices and this was not any good indicator for economic stability. The economic damages from various oil spills have been approximated on the basis of lost use values, for example beach recreation or commercial fishing. Nevertheless, the Gulf War oil spill had significant environmental and economic impacts (Subramanian, 2012). An economic appraisal of the non-use losses meant that these damages included the majority of the losses that arose from the spill, established on a provisional evaluation study. Policy makers and scientist need to combine force to develop damage assessment techniques that acknowledge marine environment together with its resource as societal capital (Abu-Zinada, 2008).Through the method of HEA- habitat equivalency analysis, agents acting on the best interests of the public can determine the degree of compensatory restoration that comprehensively recompenses the public for the provisional losses of the oil spill. The fundamental code is that refurbishment schemes ought to deliver ecological services over that period that

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Abu-Zinada, A. H. (2008). Protecting the Gulfs marine ecosystems from pollution. Basel: Birkhauser. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=8vMzKsGikTkC&pg=PA253&dq=assessing+the+impacts+of+1991+gulf+war+oil+spill&hl=en&sa=X&ei=0TUeVeijFcfVapPwgvgL&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=assessing%20the%20impacts%20of%201991%20gulf%20war%20oil%20spill&f=false

Bridge, G., & Le, B. P. (2013). Oil. Malden, MA: Polity Press. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=SZ60AAAAQBAJ&pg=PA108&dq=How+the+gulf+war+oil+spill+of+1991+affected+oil+supply&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pCkeVazxK4zzat7sgLgI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=How%20the%20gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%20of%201991%20affected%20oil%20supply&f=false

Brauer, J. (2009). War and nature: The environmental consequences of war in a globalized world. Lanham: AltaMira Press. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=-WVhuj9U6rEC&pg=PA108&dq=How+the+gulf+war+oil+spill+of+1991+affected+oil+supply&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pCkeVazxK4zzat7sgLgI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=How%20the%20gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%20of%201991%20affected%20oil%20supply&f=false

Fingas, M. F. (2015). Handbook of oil spill science and technology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=ddu5BgAAQBAJ&pg=PA465&dq=the+gulf+war+oil+spill+and+its+impacts&hl=en&sa=X&ei=HSAeVZ2oFJDPaI-WgeAC&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=the%20gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%20and%20its%20impacts&f=false

Freedman, B. (1995). Environmental ecology: The ecological effects of pollution, disturbance, and other stresses. San Diego: Academic Press. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=gD14h8SKdeoC&pg=PA400&dq=gulf+war+oil+spill+1991&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wUIeVaCaH8qBaYDVgaAI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%201991&f=false

National Research Council (U.S.). (2001). Oil in the seas III: Inputs, fates, and effects. Washington, D.C: National Academies Press. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=9bHZm_9ZtgkC&pg=PA135&dq=How+the+gulf+war+oil+spill+of+1991+affected+oil+supply&hl=en&sa=X&ei=pCkeVazxK4zzat7sgLgI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=How%20the%20gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%20of%201991%20affected%20oil%20supply&f=false

Nemr, A. . (2006). Petroleum contamination in warm and cold marine environments. New York: Novinka Books. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=2zhiKTFly6IC&pg=PA64&dq=Petroleum+contamination+in+warm+and+cold+marine+environments.&hl=en&sa=X&ei=zkEeVcT6MoqtafiIgbgL&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Petroleum%20contamination%20in%20warm%20and%20cold%20marine%20environments.&f=false

Owen, L.A. & Pickering, K.T. (2006). An Introduction to Global Environmental Issues. New York, NY: Routledge. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=xUmEAgAAQBAJ&pg=PA209&dq=effects+of+the+Gulf+War+Oil+Spill+of+1991&hl=en&sa=X&ei=KawdVbGXO4LdaI2QgegL&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=effects%20of%20the%20Gulf%20War%20Oil%20Spill%20of%201991&f=false

Poonian, C. (2003). The effects of the 1991 Gulf War on the marine and coastal environment of the Arabian Gulf: Impact, recovery and future prospects. Management, 44. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from http://www.c-3.org.uk/Multimedia/Reports/Gulf%20war_Poonian.pdf

Saenger, P. (1994). Cleaning up the Arabian Gulf: Aftermath of an oil spill. Search, 25, 19-22. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from http://epubs.scu.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1687&context=esm_pubs

Subramanian, V. (2012). Coastal environments: Focus on Asian regions. Dordrecht: Springer. Retrieved on April 3, 2015 from https://books.google.co.ke/books?id=SjE-vIwHMFkC&pg=PA39&dq=gulf+war+oil+spill+1991&hl=en&sa=X&ei=wUIeVaCaH8qBaYDVgaAI&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=gulf%20war%20oil%20spill%201991&f=false

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