They considered that Sophists wanted to destabilize the city states and destroy the morality of its citizens. Dmagogues gave a tough time to Sophists with public support and created an atmosphere of hatred against Sophists. I Sparta, eforts were made to develop a system of Oligarchy after defeating Athens in Peloponnesian war. Athough, Ahens repulsed the tyrannical rule of Sparta but they blamed Sophists to create political instability and social chaos among the city states (Patterson 187). Te process of ‘urbanization’ had been started Greek after the Peloponnesian war.
who were lived in the countryside started to migrate to major urban centers for taking their share in the benefits of the trade and commerce. A a result, ‘amily farm economy’ converted into ‘money economy’. Wrfare became professional, epensive and sophisticated as compared to previously less destructive, aateur and cheap in nature. Te state burdened hoplite farmers to meet the expenditure of new trends and technologies of warfare which led the decline of this class politically and economically. Wth the passage of time, lrge economic states of tenant farmers slaves had been converted into family owned farms with the workforce of independent labor or farmers.
Te decline of traditional polis farm system contributed in the decline of polis itself. Athough, Geeks were dynamic and enthusiastic people but polis was reached at the verge of collapse. Bsides above mentioned reasons of political crisis in Greek polis, te concentration of wealth among few hands had also a negative connotation for the ancient society. Tis wealthy class dominated the political field also and safeguarded its vested interests at the cost of state.
Te commercial class suppressed other classes and segments of life with fair and foul play. Oe of the reasons of political instability was the dearth of the natural resources in city states that led the unhealthy competition among various classes and generated ‘class biasness’ in harmonious society of city states. A far as the political instability in Roman Republic is concerned, mny reasons are same as in the Greek polis but some have their own unique nature. Uequal distribution of wealth is one of the causes of unrest Roman Republic which started after Second Punic War.
A those times, sall farmers and craftsmen were...
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