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Gender and Women's Studies

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Into believing his or her negative views, with a result of self-hatred, which can be expressed through self-abuse, despair and depression (Pharr 60).a) Definition: A term used to describe the tendency of a member of an oppressed group, who has been led to self-hatred through internalized oppression, to express hatred, prejudice and even lacking hope for the group and its members (Critical Terms Sheet).b) Horizontal Hostility takes place when women, who have been rape victims before, condemn all the subsequent rape victims, terming them as agents of rapes, because of their provocative dressing habits.c) The relevance of Horizontal Hostility to Gender & Women’s Studies relates to the way other women criticize and disdain their fellow women when they are successful in getting something good like a boyfriend. They instead refer to it as a mere fling (Greasy – Summer Nights).a) Definition: A term used to refer to the group (especially women) who do not adhere to the norms requirements being; controlled, excluded and denied their rights and instead do contrary to the norm (Pharr 58).b) An example of The Other is a person facing marginalization because of being overweight, contrary to the norm of attractiveness that purports attractiveness to go hand in hand with health and right body size.c) The relevance of The Other to Gender & Women’s Studies relates to when women who do not follow to the norm of being skinny since it is viewed as beauty, and a marriage initiator. They are the other and are perceptibly abnormal (Killing Us Softly).Institutional power is a through pass to oppression. According to Pharr, institutional power refers to the representation of a group of people in institutions. The more a group is represented in institutions like the congress, criminal justice system, military, leadership of churches and synagogues and financial institutions, the more a group has institutional power. When, for instance, the white-dominated criminal justice system executes the laws made by the U. Congress, which predominated by the whites, the blacks do not have the power to institutionalize their grievances and hatred towards the white society (Pharr 54).The oppressed forever remain helpless.On the other hand, Pharr categorically distinguishes institutional power from individual prejudice and Bigotry. Bigotry and individual prejudice involves intolerance of people with contravening opinion as that of the black women and black persons;
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