The planet, as well as the other extraterrestrial objects like asteroids, was formed in the flat plane of the whirling disc of dust. Both electrostatic forces and sticky carbon coatings made particles of dust stick together forming clusters, which eventually stuck together forming rocks. Mutual gravity made these rocks come together, ultimately to form planets in a process called accretion.During and after the Terrestrial planets were formed, there was a cataclysmic bombardment by the remains of rocky planetesimals that cratered these planets’ surfaces. The impacting material, together with extreme radioactivity as well as consequent gravitational concentration, generated adequate heat to melt as well as chemically separate the planets into three layers (crust, mantle, and core) as per Holton et al. The Terrestrial planets’ atmospheres were created in this process and subsequently by outgassing from hot interiors of planets as well as from the impacting material.Between Mars and Jupiter, in the asteroid belt, the solar nebula temperature was lower so that water and carbon-rich minerals could unite in the forming of planetesimals. From Jupiter outward, temperatures were much lower making large amounts of frozen water accumulate with the rocky matter in the planetesimals. At colder temperatures, other ices formed, like methane and ammonia, giving those far-away planetesimals a mixed composition of ammonia, water, as well as methane ice saturated with a small quantity of rocky matter (Karttunen et al.According to Solar Nebula Hypothesis, rocky planets formed in the centre of the protoplanetary disk where the temperatures were very high to prevent condensation of ice, water and other materials into grains. This resulted in the coagulation of only rocky grains and later on into the creation of rocky planetesimals. Following small planetesimals formation, runaway accretion began. Growth hastens as mass builds up leading to the growth of bigger bodies by the destruction of minor bodies. This lasted approximately 10,000 to 100,000 years and ended when the biggest bodies exceeded about 1,000 km in diameter.Next, oligarch accretion started. Many hundred of the largest bodies called oligarchs continued to accrete planetesimals. They grew impacting each other and forming a bigger body. The outcome of the oligarchic phase was the formation of
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