A fire alarm system is defined as an active fire protection system that is designed to detect fire, traces of fire or the effects of fire. Due to its design, it has the capability to notify the occupants in the building, people around the building, the fire department and activates all the fire controlling devices in the building. A simple fire alarm system may include an alarm initiating device, alarm notification device, fire safety control devices, and power supplies and wiring (Cote, 2000). The design of the fire alarm is carefully chalked out by competent engineers who are educated in fire protection and are licensed to practice their knowledge within a particular area as defined by the administration of a particular country or province etc.
These engineers carefully design the device for active fire suppression, controlling lighting and electrical power etc. The fire alarm system is planted in the building keeping in view the design of the building. Further details are covered by the technician hired by the contractor. In the United States, it is essential to hire technician for fire alarm design who has been licensed by the National Institute for Certification of Engineering Technologies.
The design has to fulfill the recommendations set for the model building code having jurisdiction in that area. In the United States, the National Fire Alarm Code is usually followed for the design, installation, and maintenance of the fire alarm system (Cote, 2000). They have the capability to keep the device in an alarm state. Examples include photoelectric smoke and heat detectors, simple heat detectors, Ionization heat detectors, in-duct smoke detectors, stations that are manually operated and sprinkler water flow sensors (Herres, 2006).
Initiating devices are linked to the control panel by a 2 or 4 wire initiating device circuit. In case of limited power system 24V DC is provided to the initiating devices that are wired in parallel. The wires are not grounded and are isolated from EMT which is grounded through the connector at the control panel.
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