Years have been relatively small, the two world wars – with their global scope and magnitude, their attacks on domestic infrastructure and civilian populations, and their massive mobilizations of resources – made the twentieth century the age of total war. The end of World War II saw the introduction of the nuclear weapon while the Korean War, the Vietnam War, and the Iran-Iraq War each resulted to over a million battle-related casualties. Interstate warfare that obviously characterized the security environment before the Soviet Union collapsed lessened and were replaced intrastate wars.
Intrastate wars are domestic or internal conflicts although they may include other variables such as superpower confrontations, the balance of power, alliances, and deterrence that all gave way to regional conflicts, ethnonational wars, religious militancy, resource scarcity and environmental degradation, preventive diplomacy, peacekeeping, and humanitarian intervention. The ending of the Cold War or the collapse of an integral, ancient institution such as the Soviet Union triggered this when it removed the lid of suppression and induce the people to express their grievances. Intrastate war is a recent and is commonly present in poor or weak countries.
A recent study cited by Cashman and Robinson (2007), the Uppsala Conflict Data, documented that in the post-Cold War period, 94 percent of the conflicts are intrastate and that the rest is the only interstate conflict to date. 6 There are instances when international intervention in an existing intrastate conflict escalates into an interstate war. This underscores the possible trend of conflicts in the future. As intrastate conflicts escalate and become full-blown international conflicts, it inevitably results in migration across borders, these immigrants may be a potent cause for large-scale conflicts.
Within the host countries, immigrants can put a strain on scarce resources, change societal and cultural patterns or become a threat to these ways, and trigger unpleasant confrontations within the community that could quickly become civil strife.
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