Traditional work designs such as job enlargement, job rotation, and job enrichment have to be replaced with flexible job arrangements and team work opportunities focused on increasing organizational work flexibility (Spyropoulos, 2008). For instance, most organizations and trade unions are introducing work practices such as fixed time contracts, shift work, overtime, weekend work, member training, part time work, temporary work, teleworking, job sharing, and home based work and compressed working week (Bryson & Forth, 2010).A trade union is an organization that can be temporary or permanent, and mainly is composed of workers whose main function is to regulate relations between these workers and employers. Recently, the trade unions are facing accusations of being out of trade and of holding onto old restrictive practices that are outlived and fail to meet the needs of present organizational setting (Carl, 2011).In various firms, managers have a main responsibility for the execution of the above-mentioned job design practices. However, their decisions on how work should be handled is influenced by several factors such as legal polices, contracts, management and leadership styles and organizational structure. Additionally, research indicates that existent unions could also affect decision-making and job design practices (Blunt, 2005).While trade unions were viewed as important instruments of social change in the past, they are currently losing their influence in the work place (CBI 2012). Challenges facing the trade unions are known both internally and externally by the labour movement. Some of the challenges include:Unions in nearly all developed economies are experiencing low numbers of membership in recent decades and this is especially harsh and Britain. This downward trend is especially pronounced among certain group of workers, particularly, male workers, young workers, manual workers, and those in the non-governmental sectors (Blanpain, 2001).Although membership has remained relatively stable in the aforementioned groups, the same is not true for young workers. According to Greer 2012, in 2010, there were gaps in union memberships between workers in private and public sectors-14% compared to 56% respectively) and amongst the old and the young aged (10% amongst those aged 16-24 compared to 33% of those above 49). Low density amongst the
Ackers, P. (2006). The new workplace and trade unionism. London: Routledge.
Baldwin, R. E. (2003). Labour unions and the role of trade. Washington, D.C.: Institute for International Economics.
Blanpain, R., & Engels, C. (2001). The ILO and the social challenges of the 21st century: the Geneva lectures. The Hague: Kluwer Law International.
Blunt, N. (2005). Act concerning the position of a trade-union representative at the work place: (SFS 1974:358).. Stockholm?: SAF.
Byrt, W. J. (2005). The framework of consensus: government, business & trade unions. Sydney: Law Book Co..
Carl, J. D. (2011). Think social problems. Boston: Pearson.
CBI (2012) Employee Relations overview [online] Available from www.cbi.org.uk [1/11/12]
Donaghy, R., (2005) The Changing Landscape of Employment Relations in Britain; Warwick Papers in Industrial Relations, number 78, University of Warwick, Warwick Business School
Edwards, G. (2007). Habermas, Activism, and Acquiescence: the UK Trade Unions. Social Movement Studies, 6(2), 111-130.
Greer, I. (2011). Trade Unions in a Neoliberal World: British Trade Unions und New Labour, edited by Gary Daniels and John McIlroy. Labor History, 52(2), 244-246.
Drage, G. (2005). Trade unions,. London: Methuen.
Fairbrother, P. (2010). Trade unions at the crossroads. London: Continuum International Publishing Group.
Ferris, K., & Stein, J. (2008). The real world: an introduction to sociology. New York: W.W. Norton.
Goss, J. (2005). The trade unions in the factory. Adelaide: Amalgamated Metal Workers Union.
Gyes, G. v., Witte, H. d., & Pasture, P. (2001). Can class still unite?: the differentiated work force, class solidarity and trade unions. Burlington, VT: Ashgate.
Kester, G., & Britwum, A. O. (2007). Trade unions and workplace democracy. Aldershot, England: Ashgate.
Drage, G. (2010). Trade unions,. London: Methuen.
Jackson, M. P. 2012). Trade unions. London: Longman.
Meardi, G. (2000). Trade union activists, east and west: comparisons in multinational companies.
Nagy, L. (20111). Situation and role of trade unions and workers and employees within the enterprise in the European COMECON countries. Szeged: Szegedi József Attila Tudományegyetem Állam- és Jogtudományi Kara.
Rees, A. (2012). The economics of trade unions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Robertson, N., & Thomas, J. L. (2008). Trade unions and industrial relations. London: Business Books.
Shvernik, N. M. (2004). Reorganization of the work of the trade unions. London: Co-operative Pub. Society of London..
Smethurst, J. B., & Carter, P. (2009). Historical directory of trade unions. Farnham, England: Ashgate.
Spyropoulos, G. (2008). Trade unions today and tomorrow. Maastricht: Published for the European Centre for Work and Society by Presses interuniversitaires européennes.
Terry, M. (2002). Redefining public sector unionism UNISON and the future of trade unions (Taylor & Francis e-Library ed.). London: Routledge.
Yates, M. (2008). Why unions matter. New York: Monthly Review Press.
Please type your essay title, choose your document type, enter your email and we send you essay samples