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Traditional work designs such as job enlargement, jb rotation, ad job enrichment have to be replaced with flexible job arrangements and team work opportunities focused on increasing organizational work flexibility (Spyropoulos, 2008). For instance, mst organizations and trade unions are introducing work practices such as fixed time contracts, sift work, oertime, wekend work, mmber training, prt time work, tmporary work, tleworking, jb sharing, ad home based work and compressed working week (Bryson & Forth, 2010). Atrade union is an organization that can be temporary or permanent, ad composed of workers whose main function is to regulate relations between these workers and employers.

Rcently, te trade unions are facing accusations of being out of trade and of holding onto old restrictive practices that are outlived and fail to meet the needs of present organizational setting (Carl, 2011). I various firms, mnagers have a main responsibility for the execution of the above-mentioned job design practices. Hwever, teir decisions on how work should be handled is influenced by several factors such as legal polices, cntracts, mnagement and leadership styles structure.

Aditionally, rsearch indicates that existent unions could also affect decision-making and job design practices (Blunt, 2005). Wile trade unions were viewed as important instruments of social change in the past, tey are currently losing their influence in the work place (CBI 2012). Callenges facing the trade unions are known both internally and externally by the labour movement. Sme of the challenges include: Uions in nearly all developed economies are experiencing low numbers of membership in recent decades and this is especially harsh and Britain. Tis downward trend especially among certain group of workers, prticularly, mle workers, yung workers, mnual workers, ad those in the non-governmental sectors (Blanpain, 2001).

Athough membership has remained relatively stable in the aforementioned groups, te same is not true for young workers. Acording to Greer 2012, i 2010, tere were gaps in union memberships between workers in private and public sectors-14% compared to 56% respectively) and amongst the old and the young aged (10% amongst those aged 16-24 compared to 33% of those above 49). Lw density amongst the. ..

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